樺太の Q&A

樺太 Q&A コーナー
(樺太に関する質問がありましたら、お問い合わせフォームからどうぞ)

Q-7: 親が本籍地を樺太に置いていたことがあります。相続に関する手続きで樺太の戸籍謄本・除籍謄本はどのように請求すれば良いでしょうか?

A-7:
 近年、樺太に本籍があった方より、戸籍謄本又は除籍謄本を請求したいが、どこに問い合わせをすれば良いかというご相談をいただくことが多々あります。
 たとえば、相続の場合において、他に相続人がいないかどうかを証明するために、被相続人の出生から死亡までの戸籍謄本の提出を法務局や銀行に提出することが求められたり、終戦時以来ソ連による軍事占領により、樺太の市役所や町村役場が機能を停止し、戸籍謄本等を入手できなくて困っているという相談がよくあります[注1]。

 樺太の戸籍簿は、下記の町村に限って外務省アジア太平洋州局地域政策課外地整理班が一部保管しているようです。

大泊郡知床村
大泊郡富内村
大泊郡遠淵村
敷香郡内路村
敷香郡散江村
元泊郡元泊村

外務省では、上記町村の樺太の戸籍簿を保管していて、一定の条件の下、戸籍に記載のある本人及び親族等からの開示請求に応じています。ただし、外務省が市町村と同じように戸籍事務を行っているわけではありません。保管する戸籍簿がない場合は、「保管がない旨の証明書」の発行がなされます[注2]。
 なお、豊原(露名、ユジノサハリンスク)の現地の公文書館に、豊原市及び豊栄郡落合町の戸籍簿が保管されているようですが(平成18年6月22日北海道新聞の報道による)、現地において開示請求に応じているかどうかは不明です。

[注1]樺太から都道(庁)府県へ本籍地を移したのが、サンフランシスコ平和条約(昭和27年4月28日公布条約第5号)発効以前は、「転籍」の手続きで移しているようです。同平和条約発効以後は、一旦無籍の扱いとなり、就籍手続によって樺太以外の都道府県内に本籍地を移すことになるようです。今日において「転籍」または「就籍」の未手続の方がおられるとするならば、同様の手続が考えられます。

[注2]外務省ホームページをご参照下さい。
(http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/annai/honsho/sosiki/gaichi/kosekisyoumei.html)  (平成28年4月21日現在)
 
また、当時の家族構成の記載がある公文書は、もとの陸海軍の軍人軍属だった方であれば、兵籍簿の写しを請求するという方法も考えられます。
兵籍簿の請求先は、陸軍の軍人軍属だった方は北海道行政情報センター又は各総合振興局・振興局行政情報コーナー(ご本人が亡くなりご遺族が請求する場合は北海道庁福祉援護課)に、海軍の軍人軍属であった方については厚生労働省社会・援護局業務課調査資料室海軍担当に請求することになります。
ところで、裁判所への成年後見人申立や法務局への成年後見登記事項の証明書または、登記されていないことの証明書の請求で、本人と申立人(請求人)との親族関係を証明するために、樺太の戸籍謄本、除籍謄本が必要になる場合があります。
 


【ご参考】終戦後の戸籍事務の取扱に関する通達を以下に掲載いたします。
 出典:金村友幸「樺太関係戸籍とその問題点についての考察」『戸籍』493号 90頁から98頁まで


(平和条約発効前)
一、転籍に関する法務省通達
1、 昭和20年10月15日民事特甲第452号回答
樺太に本籍を有する者に関する届所を届出人の所在地である本土市町村長が受理したときは、当分の間届書を現地に送付することを留保する。
2、 昭和23年11月2日民事甲第3486通達
届書類は別に指示があるまで送付できる状態のまま留め置くこと。
3、 昭和24年2月4日民事甲第3876号通達
内地に在住する樺太在籍者が、終戦後内地の市町村長に戸籍の届出をし、同市町村長においてその届書を保管中、当該戸籍の筆頭者及びその配偶者が内地の市町村長に転籍の届出をした場合は、前の届出義務者は事件本人の本籍変更の旨を追完させ、これに基づき転籍戸籍の処理をする。
4、 昭和26年7月3日民事甲第1330号通達
昭和24年2月4日民事甲第3876号回答を変更し、追完の届出をさせて処理すべきでなく前の届出義務者から申出書を提出させ、前の届書に当該申出書を併せて完全な届書として扱い、転籍等の戸籍への処理をすることとされた。

二、就籍との関係についての法務省通達
1、昭和20年10月23日民事特甲第480号通達
樺太に本籍を有する者の本土市町村への転籍等本籍の移転は認められる。
2、昭和24年4月2日民事甲第193号回答
  本籍が樺太にある者について、就籍許可の審判がなされても就籍届は受理できない。

(平和条約発効後)
1、昭和27年4月19日民事甲第438号通達
 樺太に本籍を有していた者は就籍の手続きをする必要がある。
2、昭和27年6月16日民事甲第829号通達
 イ 今後未就籍者の届書には、本籍の表示は無籍とする。
 ロ 平和条約発効後、元樺太在籍の夫、内地本籍の妻が夫の氏を称する婚姻と同時に嫡出子出生届があった場合は、そのまま受理し、夫(父)の就籍後に各追完の届出をさせて処理する。
 ハ 離婚・離縁その他身分上の行為により、樺太の実方(=実家のこと)戸籍に復籍すべきときは、原則として復氏(=旧姓に戻ること)者が復籍すべき戸籍を有しない場合として新戸籍を編成する。ただし、復氏すべき者が復氏の結果、内地に就籍したその父又は母と氏を同じくするに至る場合は、同戸籍に復籍の記載をする。


Q-6: 岡本監輔(おかもと けんすけ)の略歴と彼が成し遂げた樺太島一周の概要を教えて下さい。

A-6:
岡本監輔は、天保10年(1839年)に阿波国(あわのくに)で生まれました。天保年間は江戸時代の終わり頃、阿波国は現在の徳島県に当たります。17歳の時に讃岐国(さぬきのくに:現在の香川県)で樺太島に関する話を聞き、同島への関心を抱き始めると、22歳の時に江戸で間宮林蔵の著書に出会い、樺太探検を志す様になりました。
岡本は、文久3年(1863年)、25歳の時に初めて樺太島に渡り、同島の南部を調査すると、一度は、江戸幕府の拠点が在った箱館(現在の函館)に引き揚げます。元治元年(1864年)、26歳の時に幕府より樺太島在住の許可を得て再び渡樺すると、今度は、より広範囲に及んで同島の調査を行い、現地で越年をしました。この頃になると、岡本は、樺太島に精通した人物として広く知られる様になったと言われています。
岡本は、元治年間(1864年-1865年)より、樺太の久春古丹(くしゅんこたん:後の大泊)に詰めていましたが、この時、幕府に樺太島全島巡見の許可を求め、元治2年3月24日(1865年4月19日)にその許しを得ています。岡本が、全島巡見の許可を求めた大きな要因の一つは、輪荒(わあれ:樺太島南部の東海岸に面した土地)に詰めていた西村伝九郎が「幕府の許可が下りれば自身も巡見に同行する」との約束をした事にあると言われています。西村は、アイヌ語に通じていたのです。
岡本は、元治2年4月1日(1865年4月25日)に久春古丹を発つと、同月10日(慶応元年4月10日 [1865年5月4日])(註1)に輪荒の西村との合流を果たしました。岡本と西村は、樺太先住民5名と共に、慶応元年5月10日(1865年6月3日)に輪荒を発つと、同月15日に樺太島中東部にある多来加湖(たらいかこ)に着いたのです。一行は、同地で米10俵を補給し、更に北進を続け、6月25日に樺太島最北端のガヲト岬に達しました。岡本は、同岬に「大日本領」と記した標柱を建て(註2)、7月8日には、樺太島に於いて間宮林蔵が到達した最北の地であるナニオーを経て、8月3日に輪荒に戻りました。岡本は、同地で西村と別れ、8月23日に出発地の久春古丹に帰還したのです。ここに、世界で初めての樺太島一周の偉業が成し遂げられました(註3)。
慶応3年12月初旬(1868年1月初旬)になると、江戸幕府が滅亡し、明治新政府が樹立されます。新政府は、明治元年(1868年)に、樺太島をも含む蝦夷地管轄の為の機関として、箱館裁判所を設置しましたが、同裁判所は約1月後に箱館府に改組され、岡本は、同府総督の清水谷公考(しみずだに きんなる)により、同島経営の一切を任されました。その後も、明治新政府の樺太島統治の仕組みは、幾度か変遷を繰り返しましたが、岡本は、久春古丹に詰め、樺太島に於ける日本側の実質的な長官として、同島の経営を続けました。しかし、岡本が、樺太島経営に尽力していた最中にも、露国は、同島を自国の流刑地(流刑植民地)にしようと目論んでいたのです。露国は、江戸時代末期に江戸幕府に押し付けた樺太島仮規則(仮条約)を根拠として、樺太島を日露雑居の地と見なし、大陸の露領から同島に次々と囚人を送り込んで来たのです。
露国は、明治初期頃までには、多数の囚人の樺太島への移送を完了させた為、黒田清隆等の明治新政府高官の中には、露国からの樺太防衛は不可能と認識する様になる者が現れ始めました。黒田らは、樺太放棄論を唱え始め、岡本は、樺太防衛の為に孤軍奮闘するも、自国の「樺太放棄論」と露国の「樺太島流刑地化政策」の板挟みに遭い、明治3年(1870年)には、久春古丹詰めの職を辞し、失意の中、悲憤慷慨し樺太島を去りました。

(註1)元治2年4月6日(1865年4月30日)で元治年間が終わる。慶応元年4月7日(1865年5月1日)が慶応年間の始まり。
(註2)「樺連のしおり」(一般社団法人全国樺太連盟発行)の年表中の記述に基づく。
(註3)・岡本監輔は、文久3年(1863年)及び元治元年(1864年)に樺太島の南部を調査しています。本文中に於ける慶応元年(1865年)の全島巡見には、樺太島南西部の能登呂半島(のとろはんとう)等は含まれていませんが、この全島巡見及び前年と前々年の調査を合わせて、岡本の樺太島一周が達せられたものと見なします。
・岡本は、樺太に関する各種文献に於いては、慶応元年(1865年)に樺太島一周に成功した初めての日本人として紹介されています。但し、文化6年(1809年)に間宮林蔵が樺太が島である事を確認して以降、慶応元年に至るまでの間に樺太島一周を行った人物の記録が現存しない為、本稿に於いては、岡本を世界で初めて樺太島一周に成功した人物として紹介しました。

【参考文献】
「樺太史物語」(宮崎雷八著)
「樺太探検の人々」(西鶴定嘉著)
「北蝦夷新志」(岡本文平著)
「北辺警備と明治維新」(小野寺満著)

Q-5: 樺太・千島交換条約に至るまでの概略史について教えて下さい。

A-5: 樺太先住民族の様子が歴史上比較的詳しく記録され始めるのは、13世紀から14世紀に掛けてです。これは、この頃、中国の元朝が、樺太先住民族を武力により屈服させ、彼らに元に朝貢する事を認めさせた過程に於いて、その状況等を記録した為です。樺太島には、主に、三つの先住民族が存在していました。概ね、同島の南部にはアイヌが居住し、その中東部の敷香(しすか)辺りにはウィルタ(オロッコ)が居住し、その北西部にはニブフ(ニクブン、ギリヤーク)が居住していたのです。尚、樺太に居住していたアイヌを北海道・千島に居住していたアイヌと区別して樺太アイヌと呼称する場合がありますが、これら三つの地域に居住していたアイヌは同一民族です。
13世紀から14世紀に於ける中国の元朝期以降も、樺太先住民族と中国王朝の朝貢関係は、途切れながら、その後の明朝期及び清朝期に於いても、継続されました。但し、この朝貢関係は、主に、樺太先住民族側から中国王朝側に貢ぎ物が送られるという形式的なものであって、貿易的な要素も含む君臣関係に過ぎないというのが実態でした。尚、樺太先住民族と中国王朝の朝貢関係は、19世紀中旬以降に清朝が弱体化し、その統治範囲であった樺太対岸の大陸地域がロシアのロマノフ朝に奪われた際に断絶しました。
中国歴代王朝の樺太島への形式的な支配が、主に、同島北部へ保たれていた最中、17世紀には、松前藩が、樺太島南部の久春古丹(くしゅんこたん)=後の大泊(おおどまり)=に漁業基地を造り、同島の開拓を始めます。尚、2000年程前までに成立していた日本の前身たる倭国は、その後、7世紀頃に国号を日本と改め、概ね、7世紀頃までに関東地方を、12世紀頃までに東北地方の北端までを、その統治範囲の中に組み込みました。そして、樺太・千島及び北海道に関しては、元禄13年(西暦:1700年)に、松前藩が、蝦夷地を自領の一部として描いた地図を江戸幕府に提出した為、幕府は、この頃までには、樺太を含む蝦夷地を自身の統治範囲内であると認識する様になったのです。ここで、松前藩による樺太を巡る統治実態に触れるとすれば、同藩は、17世紀前半には敷香辺りまで北上し、同地一帯の実地調査を行い(イ)、18世紀中には、久春古丹の他に、樺太南端に近い白主(しらぬし)にも漁業並びにアイヌとの交易を取り仕切る拠点を開設していました。
17世紀後半には、中国の清朝とロシアのロマノフ朝が、黒龍江周辺で勢力争いを展開し、その結果、ロシア側がこの争いに敗れます。この争いで敗北を喫したロマノフ朝は、この後、清朝の勢力圏を避ける様にして、カムチャツカ半島や千島列島北部を自身の勢力圏内に収め、18世紀後半から19世紀前半までに、千島列島南部、北海道及び樺太に迂回南下して来たのです。
ロシア勢力の蝦夷地侵入により北方防備の手薄さを痛感した江戸幕府は、天明5年(西暦:1785年)に、老中・田沼意次(たぬまおきつぐ)の統率の下、同地に調査団を派遣します。樺太に関しては、その南部の様子が調査されました。しかし、その翌年、田沼が失脚すると、北方防備への関心は再び希薄となり、ロシアの蝦夷地侵入が相次ぎます。このロシア侵入の様子は、松前藩から幕府に報告される事はなく、幕府は、徐々に、松前藩の北方防備能力に疑問を呈し始めます。幕府は、独自に蝦夷地の調査を行う為、寛政4年(西暦:1792年)には、最上徳内(もがみとくない)らを同地に派遣し、徳内らは樺太にも上陸します。この時、徳内らは、樺太西岸の久春内(くしゅんない)辺りまで北上し、実地調査の上、現地の様子を幕府に報告したのです。幕府は、その後も、樺太を含む独自の蝦夷地調査を継続し、文化4年(西暦:1807年)には、松前藩より同地の支配権を取り上げ、樺太を含む蝦夷地は幕府の直轄下に置かれる事となりました。
江戸幕府は、文化5年(西暦:1808年)の春に、松田伝十郎(まつだでんじゅうろう)と間宮林蔵(まみやりんぞう)を樺太調査に派遣します。この時、両名は、樺太北部までを見聞し、樺太が対岸の大陸とは完全に離れた島である事を見極めます。それまでは、樺太は対岸の大陸と地続きの可能性、つまり、樺太は対岸の大陸の半島の可能性もあると考えられていたのです。両名は、同年夏に北海道の宗谷(そうや)に戻りましたが、その直後、林蔵は再び樺太に渡ります。樺太南部で越年した林蔵は、翌年の文化6年(西暦:1809年)には、樺太北西部に居住するニブフの村に滞在し、現地の村人と親睦を深めた結果、村長の大陸渡航に同行する事を許されたのです。村長の渡航目的は、樺太対岸の大陸地域に設置された満州仮府と呼ばれる清朝の役所に貢ぎ物を届ける事でした。満州仮府は、樺太を含む樺太対岸の大陸地域等を管轄する役所であり、林蔵は同府に於いて、清朝の役人と会見した結果、樺太周辺の北方事情に関して様々な事を知らされます。そして、この大陸渡航により、樺太と対岸の大陸の間に海峡がある事が明確に確認され、以後、林蔵は樺太が島である事を発見した人物として歴史にその名を刻む事となったのです。尚、この年文化6年(西暦:1809年)に、幕府は樺太の正式名称を北蝦夷地に決しました。
この後、江戸幕府は、文政4年(西暦:1821年)には、日露間の緊張が幾分和らいで来た為、松前藩に樺太を含む蝦夷地の支配権を返しますが、安政2年(西暦:1855年)までには、日露関係が再び緊張して来た為、松前藩より、再度、同地の支配権を召し上げます。と言うのも、この前年とそれ以前の嘉永6年(西暦:1853年)には、ロシアのロマノフ朝から通商等を求めた使節団が来日し、国家統治機関たる幕府が、ロシアと直に樺太・千島に於ける同国との国境画定をも協議する必要があったからです。一回目と二回目のロシア側使節団は、共に、プチャーチン提督によって率いられ、一回目は長崎にて、二回目は下田にて、談判が行われました。日本側は、川路聖謨(かわじとしあきら)らを応接役に任じ、この対応に当たらせました。これらの談判の結果、安政元年(西暦:1855年)に、日露和親条約が締結されたのです。この条約により、千島列島に関しては、得撫島(うるっぷとう)以北の同列島北部が露領たる事及び択捉島(えとろふとう)以南の同列島南部が邦領たる事が決せられましたが、樺太に関しては、樺太島内には境を決めず是迄(これまで)の仕来り通りという事のみ合意されました(1, 2, 3, 4)。
日露和親条約の締結された19世紀半ば辺りは、日本を含む東アジアにとっては、欧米諸国から武力干渉等を受けた激動の時代でありました。その発端となったのが、1840年から1842年のアヘン戦争です。中国の清朝は、この戦争で英国に敗れ、その領土まで奪い取られました。この後、清朝の弱体化に目を付けた、ロシアのロマノフ朝は、1858年及び1860年に、清朝に璦琿条約(あいぐんじょうやく)及び北京条約を締結させ、これらの条約により、樺太対岸の大陸地域である黒龍江左岸及び沿海州を併合したのです。この様なロシアの膨張圧力は、日本に対しても強まり、安政6年(西暦:1859年)には、ロシアのムラヴィヨフ総督が軍艦数隻を率いて品川に来航し、樺太の割譲を求めています。この時は、江戸幕府が、樺太の譲渡を拒否し、同総督は退去しますが、その後も、日本側がロシアの膨張圧力に押され続ける状態が長引きました。我が国も、北方事情に詳しい岡本監輔(おかもとけんすけ)等を樺太に派遣し、同地の防衛に努めましたが、慶応3年(西暦:1867年)には、樺太に於ける国境画定交渉の為にロシアに派遣した小出秀実(こいでひでざね)らが、同国の軍事力を背景とした交渉術に押し切られ、同国に樺太島仮規則という条約を締結させられます。この条約により、樺太は、日露共同管理の島とされ、これによりロシアの樺太への進出速度は一層加速されたのです(5)。ロシア側は、樺太を流刑地(るけいち)として扱い、同地に次々と囚人等を送り込んで来ました。この様な状況下、我が国に於いては、明治維新による動乱等も発生し、明治初期までには、樺太の支配状況はロシア側有利に傾きます。江戸幕府より国家統治を引き継いだ明治政府も、岡本監輔に樺太統治を一任し、その後、開拓使及び樺太開拓使を設立します。日本側の樺太行政は、これらの機関により管轄されたのです。開拓使及び樺太開拓使の管轄下に於いても、樺太統治を巡る日本側不利の状況は変わらず、この様な状況下、明治5年(西暦:1872年)には、日本は、ロシアに対し、金銭により樺太を買い取りたい旨を伝えます。しかし、この交渉も不調に終わり、我が国は、明治8年(西暦:1875年)には、もはやロシアからの樺太防衛は不可能と認識するに至りました(6)。同年、我が国は、ロシアから促される形で、樺太千島交換条約を締結し、樺太は、不毛の千島列島北部と交換という名の下、事実上、ロシアに併合されたのです。

(1) ロシアは、19世紀初頭以降に樺太の領有権を主張し始めましたが、17世紀には既に樺太に進出していた日本が、長崎及び下田の両談判を通して、その主張の不当性を指摘しました。その結果、樺太島内に関しては、「是迄(これまで)の仕来り通り」という事のみが合意されたのです。
(2)「是迄の仕来り」とは、少なくとも、「黒龍江河口(対岸の樺太北部)辺りまでを日本領であるとして来た仕来り」の事です(ロ、ハ、ニ)。
(3) 日露双方は、「長崎談判以前に、日本人(和人及びアイヌ)が居住した樺太島内の地域は日本領である」という認識は共有していました。よって、双方は、この認識を条約への付録という形で書き起こす事に合意しました。
(4) ロシア側は、一旦、上記付録の添付に合意したものの、後になり、その削除を執拗に求めました。これは、地名から樺太北端までアイヌが居住していた痕跡が窺える為です。つまり、同付録の内容が、樺太島全体が日本領である事に相当するからです。日本側は、ロシア側の執拗な求めに応じ、同付録の削除に合意しました。
(5) 樺太島仮規則により、樺太は初めて日露雑居の地とされました。この仮規則が結ばれる以前は、ロシアも、少なくとも亜庭湾(あにわわん)一帯 [大泊一帯] が日本領である事を認めていました。しかし、これにより、同一帯をも含む樺太全島が日露共同管理の島とされたのです。
(6) 樺太の支配状況を巡って、自国の形勢が悪化の一途を辿る中、我が国も、樺太防衛の為、ロシアと粘り強く交渉を続けました。その結果、ロシアも、一時期、樺太放棄を考えましたが、明治政府中枢にも樺太放棄論を唱える高官が存在する事を察知すると、その態度を硬化させました。その後は、我が国が押し切られる形で、樺太千島交換条約が締結されたのです。

【参考文献及び参考箇所】
(イ)「樺太史の栞」(著・西鶴定嘉)‐P9及びP24
   ⇒寛永14年(西暦:1637年)に足香まで視察・検分との記載がある。足香(タライカ)とは現在の敷香一帯を指す。
(ロ)「幕臣川路聖謨の日記」(著・川越裕子)‐P.135
   ⇒「続・日本俘虜記、ロシア士官の見た徳川日本」徳武新太郎訳、講談社学術文庫p.24によれば、"サハリン島は南半だけが日本に属し、以北はシナの領域である"との記載がある。つまり、同記載は、ロシアの樺太に対する領有権を否定している。
(ハ)「長崎日記・下田日記」(著・川路聖謨,注釈・藤井貞文/川田貞夫)‐P160
   ⇒"黒龍江河口辺りまでが日本領であるが、ロシア領という根拠はない。よって、この現状を維持するべきである"という趣旨の川路聖謨の談判中に於ける発言が紹介されている。
(ニ)「樺太防衛の想い出」(著・鈴木康生)‐P55
   ⇒"是までの仕来たりとは「北樺太のラッカ付近まで日本領とした仕来たり」を示す。決して島内は両国の自由雑居の意味ではない。"との記載がある。


Q-4 樺太の鉄道について教えてください。

A-4  地図


1、総論
 樺太の鉄道は、帝国陸軍が軍需輸送のために軽便鉄道を建設したことに始まります。この軍用軽便鉄道は、軌間600ミリでありました。当時内地の鉄道で一般的であった軌間1067ミリと比べると「ミニサイズ」であることがわかります。
 樺太庁発足後、樺太庁に経営が移管されました。移管後の明治43年には、輸送力の増強を図るために1067ミリへの改軌工事が行われました。
これ以後、樺太の鉄道は、各地域に点在する民営鉄道や軌道を除き、樺太庁が運営する国有鉄道でした。大正7年4月に樺太の国有鉄道の現業を掌る樺太庁鉄道事務所が設置され、昭和18年4月には樺太庁の鉄道が鉄道省に移管され、樺太鉄道局が設置されています。

2、各論
さて、樺太の主要な鉄道は、(1)運輸通信省線と、(2)地方鉄道線があり、以下に分類して紹介いたします。

(1)運輸通信省線(昭和18年3月まで樺太庁鉄道線、同年4月から10月までは鉄道省線)は、次の4路線がありました。

①樺太西線: 大正9年10月に本斗・真岡間が開通したのを初めとし、昭和12年12月に久春内まで開通しました。久春内以北は建設が進められていましたが未開通のままです。この樺太西線は本斗から真岡を経て久春内に至る鉄道(全長:170.1㎞)並びに本斗から分岐して浜本斗(貨物駅)に至る鉄道(全長:1.3㎞)及び真岡から分岐して浜真岡(貨物駅)に至る鉄道(全長:1.8㎞)です。
この樺太西線に接続するため、北日本汽船株式会社(現、商船三井)により、稚内桟橋駅より本斗まで、稚斗(ちと)航路が運航され、樺太・北海道間の接続の便となっていました。

 ②樺太東線: 大泊から豊原、敷香を経て古屯に至る鉄道(全長:414.1㎞)並びに落合から分岐して栄浜に至る鉄道(全長:10.3㎞)及び栄浜より先、栄浜海岸(貨物駅)に至る鉄道(全長:1.8㎞)です。
明治40年8月に、陸軍軽便鉄道として開通(明治39年12月)していた楠渓町(大泊町)・豊原間が樺太庁鉄道に引き継がれました。明治44年12月には、栄浜まで開通し、さらに大正3年4月には栄浜海岸まで開通しました。このうち、栄浜から栄浜海岸までは貨物線でしたが、昭和18年まで旅客の便乗が可能であったようです。
 そして、落合から敷香方面については、樺太鉄道株式会社の手により、昭和2年11月落合・知取間が開業し、昭和11年8月には敷香まで開業しています。この樺太鉄道線は、昭和16年に樺太庁鉄道に買収されて樺太東線の一部となり、11月には上敷香まで開通しました。また、軍用鉄道として昭和18年11月に上敷香から気屯まで開通、昭和19年8月に古屯まで全通しました。
この樺太東線に接続するため、稚内桟橋駅より大泊港駅まで、運輸通信省により、稚泊(ちはく)連絡船が運航されていました。


 ③川上線: 内淵炭田の南部に位置する川上炭山の開発を目的に開通しました。小沼(豊栄郡豊北村)から川上炭山に至る鉄道です(全長:21.9㎞)。 
 大正3年4月に樺太庁鉄道線として奥川上まで開通しました。奥川上から先も、三井炭鉱株式会社によって大正年間前半(時期不明)に奥川上、川上炭山間が軌間600ミリの軌道で結ばれていました。
その後、奥川上から先については、1067ミリに改軌するとともに、樺太庁が路線を三井炭鉱株式会社から借り上げ、大正11年10月には樺太庁鉄道には運営が移管されました。そして、大正14年2月に全ての権利が三井炭鉱株式会社から樺太庁に移っています。


 ④豊真線: 小沼から手井に至る鉄道です(全長:76.2㎞)。当初、樺太東線と樺太西線を連絡する路線が一切ないため、貝塚~多蘭内~本斗間のルートにて決定していましたが、大正9年の第43帝国議会で予算を追加の上、区間が真岡・豊原間に変更されました。その後、両端から建設が始められ、昭和3年9月に全通しました。
昭和20年7月15日に豊原・奥鈴谷間が廃止され、新路線として奥鈴谷・小沼間が開業することによって、起点が豊原駅から小沼駅に変更になっています。なお、西小沼信号所から小沼までの間は川上線と同じルートでした。
この路線の池ノ端・宝台間の難所を乗り越えるために作られたのが宝台の「ループ線」です。ループ線の半径は192mであり、交差部分は上部が鋼鈑桁約12.2m・4連、及び約9m・1連、構桁(橋梁などの主要部分を構成する水平材)約45.72m・1連の大規模な陸橋となり、ループ線の途中に第二号トンネル及び第一号トンネルが貫く形になっていて、名所になっていました。
また、この路線の滝ノ沢駅は標高407メートルで、樺太の鉄道では最も標高の高い駅です。

(2)地方鉄道 は、次の3路線がありました。

 ①南樺鉄道線: 新場(しんば)から留多加(るーたか)に至る地方鉄道です(全長:18.6㎞)。大正15年10月に開業し、南樺(なんか)鉄道株式会社が経営していました。

 ②帝国燃料興業株式会社内淵線: 樺太東線大谷(豊栄郡落合町)から内淵に至る地方鉄道です(全長:23.2㎞)。もとは、樺太人造石油株式会社が昭和18年8月に開業していた路線です。


 ③帝国燃料興業株式会社内幌線: 樺太西線本斗から内幌炭山に至る地方鉄道です(全長:16.4㎞)。南樺太炭鉱鉄道株式会社が昭和6年10月に開業した路線です。三菱石炭油化工業株式会社を経て、帝国燃料興業株式会社が運営していました。
 

上記に掲げた鉄道の他に、内川(ないかわ)炭鉱軌道(敷香・内川間)等の軌道がありましたが、詳細を割愛します。






Q&A 3.
Q-3 (1):  樺太庁の沿革を教えて下さい。
A-3 (1)::
① 樺太全体を総括する機関について
徳川幕府時代以前から樺太の経営は、原則として松前藩がこれにあたっていました(一時幕府直轄地の時期があります)。王政復古後、樺太及び北海道を管轄する機関として、箱館府(当初箱館裁判所)を経て、明治2年に開拓使が設置されました。開拓使は明治3年に樺太開拓使と北海道開拓使に分割されますが、明治4年に合併して、再度「開拓使」となりました。
樺太千島交換条約により樺太の主権を一時失いますが、日露戦争の勝利に伴い、我が国が樺太(北緯50度以南)に関する主権を回復したことから、樺太庁官制(参照1)が枢密院の諮詢を経て裁可、公布され、日露戦争による軍制時代の樺太民政署を改組する形で、樺太庁が豊原に設置されました(但し、当初は大泊にありました。)。樺太庁の長は長官(勅任)と称し、内務大臣の指揮監督を承け、法律命令を執行し、樺太の拓地殖民の事務及部内の行政事務を管理することとされていました。同時に支庁及び出張所が設置されています。樺太庁長官には「律令」や「制令」の制定といった法律に代わる命令が制定できるような特別の立法権はありません。他の都府県の知事と比べて、長官の権限に拓地植民の事務(参照2)があること、支庁長は、法律命令により、又は長官より委任された権限につき、支庁令を発することができること(参照3)、長官の職権に関する事務を支庁長や市長に委任することができること(参照4)等の規定を見ると、他の官と比較すると北海道庁長官(参照5)が最も近い官職であるといえます。支庁の変遷については、、別表をご参照いただければと思います。
樺太には北海道と同様、府県制(参照6)が施行されていませんでした(参照7)。
もっとも、樺太においても、自治機関として、地方議会や地方費の設置は検討されていたようですが実現に至りませんでした(参照8)。ただし、昭和12年4月に、樺太庁の施政につき、幅広い意見を取り入れるために、樺太庁評議会が設置されています。樺太庁評議会は、樺太庁長官の諮問に答え、施政の重要事項について建議するとされていました。同評議会の会長は樺太庁長官、副会長は樺太庁内務部長をこれに充て、樺太庁評議員は、樺太庁長官が樺太に居住する学識経験のあるものから、これを依嘱することとされていました。実際には、各市町村の議員、商工会議所会頭等が依嘱されていたようです。昭和18年に、樺太が法的に完全内地化された後も、樺太庁評議会の活用が図られていました。このように議会が設置されず、諮問機関の設置に止まったのは、樺太が開拓途上であったことによるとされています。

② 樺太庁と北海道庁との関係について
樺太と北海道の関係は、産業経済面において共通した特徴があると言われ、行政面においても、樺太庁と北海道庁の関係は、松前藩や開拓使の時代に遡ることになります。
都庁府県(参照9)の上に位置する広域地方行政組織においても、「北海地方」として、樺太と北海道がセットになっていました。
この点、「地方行政協議会令」(参照10)が存在しましたが、この勅令により設置された地方行政協議会(樺太及び北海道は北海地方行政協議会を設置)は各地方長官と地方参事官から構成される単なる綜合連絡調整の会議に過ぎませんでした。 しかし、地方総監府官制(参照11)が枢密院の諮詢を経て裁可・公布されたことにより、北海道と樺太について総合統括する地方総監府が設置されました(参照12)。
しかし、昭和20年11月6日に、北海地方総監府が廃止となってしまいました。このとき、昭和20年勅令第624号によって、北海道庁長官が樺太及び北海道の総合調整を掌ることとされています(参照13)。
この北海道庁長官の権限を規定した勅令は、昭和22年5月1日に、廃止となっていますが、終戦に伴い陸海軍の軍人軍属であった者の身の上の取扱に関する事務は、復員庁設置後、陸軍の連隊区司令部及び地方海軍人事部の業務を承継した地方世話部(参照14)の業務を引き継ぐ形で、都道府県で処理することとされましたところ(参照15)、樺太がロシアに不法占拠されている現状に鑑み、樺太の陸軍軍人軍属に関する事務については北海道庁において行うこととされています(参照16)。


Q-3 (2): 樺太の市町村の沿革を教えてください。
A-3 (2):
樺太の市町村は、樺太の近代的発展に伴い変化を遂げ、以下の5つの時期に区分できます。なお、各市町村の変遷は、別表に掲載しました。

1、日露戦争後から大正4年まで
 この時期は、樺太庁の支庁、出張所が存在するのみで、市、郡、町及び村は設置されていませんでした。但し、各部落(村落共同体の意)、村、町に任意団体である民会や町民会が組織され、総代や評議員等を選出し、事実上の自治が行われていました。

2、 大正4年「樺太ノ町村編制ニ関スル件」施行以後
大正4年に「樺太ノ町村編制ニ関スル件」という勅令が裁可・公布され(参照17)、樺太のなかに郡、町及び村が定められることになりました。しかし、これは樺太のなかに名称と区域を作ったにすぎず、法人格を有する通常の市町村とは違うものでした。

3、大正11年「樺太ノ地方制度ニ関スル法律」施行以後
「樺太ノ地方制度ニ関スル法律」(参照18)が第44回帝国議会の協賛を経て裁可、公布されたことにより、法人格のある町村が設置されることになりました。この法律は、全9か条の短い法律であり、施行令たる樺太町村制(参照19)によってその詳細が示されています。このとき、各町村長は、樺太庁長官によって任命され、各町村に町村長の諮問機関たる評議会(樺太庁支庁長により任命される評議員で構成)が設置されました。

4、 昭和4年「樺太町村制」施行以後
 上記、「樺太ノ地方制度ニ関スル法律」を全面的に改正した樺太町村制 (参照20)が第56回帝国議会の協賛を経て裁可、公布されました。この法律も全7条の短い法律であり、その詳細は、大正11年勅令第8号「樺太町村制」を全面改正した樺太町村制施行令 ( 昭和4年勅令第195号 )に定められました。このとき、樺太の町村は、その発展の度合いに応じて緩急をつける必要があることから、北海道の町村制度に倣い、一級町村と二級町村に区別され、かつ、一部については一級町村・二級町村のどちらにも指定されない町村が存在しました。従来の町村評議会が廃止され、住民から選ばれた議員で組織される町村会が置かれました。町村会議員の任期は、4年とされ、一級町村にあっては2年以上、二級町村にあっては、1年以上その町村の住民であることを要しました。町村長の選出方法については、二級町村長は、樺太庁長官の任命によっていましたが、一級町村においては、町村会の議決によって町村長を選出することとされていました。この当時の一級町村となったのは11町村、二級町村となったのは24町村、指定外の町村が15町村存在しました。なお、指定外の町村については、従前の法令が適用され、町村会議員の選挙が行われていませんでした。
 昭和4年「樺太町村制」施行当初、樺太に市は存在しませんでしたが、第70回帝国議会の協賛を経て、「樺太市制」(参照21)が裁可、公布され、昭和12年7月1日に、豊原市において樺太市制が施行されています。豊原市においては、市会及び市参事会という議決機関が存在し、市会議員は、4年の任期において、公選されました。なお、議員になるには、2年以上豊原市の住民であることを要しました。議員定数は、30人以上40人以内とされました。

5、 昭和18年の樺太完全内地化以後
 第81回帝国議会の協賛を経て裁可・公布された市制及び町村制の一部改正によって(参照22)樺太の市町村に関する規定が市制(明治44年法律第68号)及び町村制(明治44年法律第69号)並びにこれらの付属法令に移管され、樺太市制及び樺太町村制は廃止されました。これにより、従来の一級町村・二級町村の区別が廃止されています。ただ、旧二級町村については、内務大臣の指定する指定町村とされて、町村長が樺太庁長官の任命に依ることや町村会の議決を書面議決とすることを可能にする等、普通の町村とは若干の違いがありました。ちなみに、この当時の旧一級町村は17町村、旧二級町村は24町村でした。

6、市町村に係る法令の効力
 樺太は、現在ソ連及びその承継国たるロシアの占領を受けていますが、このことは、樺太に関する我が国の法令に直ちに影響を及ぼすものではありません。もっとも地方総監府官制は、昭和20年11月6日に廃止となりました。また、樺太庁官制も、日本国憲法施行に伴い、官制が勅令事項から法律事項へ変更されたため、昭和22年法律第72号の規定により、国家行政組織法施行の日に失効しています(参照23)。
 しかし、従前より法律で規律されていた市町村については、昭和22年法律第72号の適用対象外です。また、昭和22年5月3日に、地方自治法が施行され、市制及び町村制が廃止になりましたが、樺太に存在する市町村は、地方自治法に基づく市町村となったと考えられます。


備 考
上記のように、地方総監府、庁、市町村という地方制度が存在していましたが、当時の住所表記の例を示します。この例のように、法制上の根拠がある支庁は表示しないのに対し、法人格のない郡を表示する慣習がありました。このような表示方法は、現在でも北海道において行われています(但し、平成22年4月1日に施行された支庁制度改革に伴い、北海道における地方自治法上の「支庁」には、総合振興局と振興局という名称がつけられています)。

① 市の場合
樺太豊原市大通南一丁目一番地

② 郡部の場合
樺太恵須取郡恵須取町大字恵須取字南浜町一丁目一番地


(参照1)明治40年勅令第33号(3月15日公布)

(参照2)
樺太庁官制(昭和18年勅令第196号)第2条 長官ハ内務大臣ノ指揮監督ヲ承ケ各省ノ主務ニ付テハ各省大臣ノ指揮監督ヲ承ケ法律命令ヲ執行シ樺太ノ拓地殖民ノ事務及部内ノ行政事務ヲ管理ス
北海道庁官制(大正2年勅令第150号)第3条 長官ハ内務大臣ノ指揮監督ヲ承ケ内閣又ハ各省ノ主務ニ付テハ内閣総理大臣又ハ各省大臣ノ指揮監督ヲ承ケ法律命令ヲ執行シ北海道ノ拓地殖民ノ事務及部内ノ行政事務ヲ管理ス

(参照3)
樺太庁官制(昭和18年勅令第196号)第37条 支庁長ハ法律命令ニ依リ又ハ長官ヨリ委任セラレタル事件ニ付支庁令ヲ発スルコトヲ得
北海道庁官制(大正2年勅令第150号)第20条 支庁長ハ法律命令ニ依リ又ハ長官ヨリ委任セラレタル事件ニ付支庁令ヲ発スルコトヲ得

(参照4)
樺太庁官制(昭和18年勅令第196号)第8条 長官ハ其ノ職権ニ関スル事務ノ一部ヲ支庁長又ハ市長ニ委任スルコトヲ得
北海道庁官制(大正2年勅令第150号)第9条 長官ハ其ノ職権ニ関スル事務ノ一部ヲヲ支庁長、警察署長、市長又ハ区長ニ委任スルコトヲ得(大正11年勅令第413号改正直後のもの)

(参照5) ここでの北海道庁長官とは、北海道知事の前身であって、地方自治法施行令(昭和22年政令第16号)附則第2条によって廃止された北海道庁官制に基づく官職をいいます。

(参照6) 明治32年法律64号(3月16日公布)

(参照7) 昭和21年法律第27号により、北海道においても、府県制を施行(同時に法律の題名を「道府県制」と改めました。)。

(参照8) ちなみに、北海道には「北海道地方費」という地方団体が存在し、「北海道会」という議会が開設されていました。

(参照9)北海道に府県制が施行される以前は、北海道は、「庁」という行政単位の一つでした。このため、ここでの都庁府県の庁とは、樺太庁及び北海道庁をいいます。

(参照10) 昭和18年勅令548号(7月1日公布)

(参照11) 昭和20年勅令第350号(6月10日公布)

(参照12) 地方総監府は、①内閣総理大臣の監督の下、地方総監(親任官)を長とし、②大東亜戦争に際し、地方における各般の行政を統括し、③法令又は特別の委任に基づく事務を処理するものとされ、具体的には、管轄する地方長官への指揮権、地方総監府令(3ヶ月以下の懲役若しくは禁固、拘留、百円以下の罰金又は科料の範囲で罰則をつけることができる)の制定権及び非常事変における陸海軍への出兵要請権がありました。

(参照13) 地方総監府は、終戦後においても東久邇宮稔彦王内閣で活用が検討されましたが、昭和20年11月6日に廃止となり、東北以南について地方行政事務局が設置されました。ただ、北海道及び樺太については、地方行政事務局は設置されず、昭和20年勅令第624号「樺太及北海道ニ於ケル行政ノ綜合連絡調整等ニ関スル件」により、北海道庁長官が樺太及び北海道の総合調整を掌ることとされ、昭和20年北海道庁達第18号により、北海道内政部(のち内務部)に北海地方行政事務室が設置されました。
この北海道庁長官の権限を定めた勅令は、GHQの指導により、昭和22年5月1日に廃止されています。

(参照14) 昭和20年12月1日の陸海軍省廃止に伴い、陸軍の連隊区司令部の承継機関として、第一復員大臣の管理に属する地方世話部が設置され(昭和20年勅令第676号第一復員官署官制)、地方海軍人事部の承継機関として、第二復員大臣の管理に属する地方復員人事部が設置されました(昭和20年勅令第681号第二復員官署官制)。その後、昭和21年6月に、第一復員省及び第二復員省が廃止されるにあたり、陸軍の地方世話部と海軍の地方復員人事部を統合する形で、各地方長官の管理に属する「地方世話部が設置されました(昭和21年勅令第318号地方世話部官制)。この地方世話部は、原則として、各都道府県の県庁所在地及び旭川、帯広(後釧路)、函館に設置されましたが、樺太については、旭川地方世話部が、沖縄については、熊本地方世話部が担当することになっていました。なお、地方世話部の業務は、各都道府県の世話課(現在は援護課等)に引き継がれることになり、地方世話部官制は、地方自治法施行令(昭和22年政令第16号)第2条によって廃止となっています。
 ちなみに、地方世話部官制の条文は、以下の通りでありました。

地方世話部官制(昭和21年勅令第318号)
朕は、地方世話部官制を裁可し、ここにこれを、公布せしめる。
御名御璽
昭和二十一年六月十四日
   内閣総理大臣 吉田茂
   内務大臣 大村清一
勅令第三百十八号
地方世話部官制

第1条 地方世話部は、地方長官の管理に属し、軍人軍属の身上の取扱に関する事務及びその家族等に対する俸給その他の給与の留守宅渡送金に関する事務を掌る。 地方世話部の位置、名称及び管轄区域は、内務大臣がこれを定める。
第2条 地方世話部に通じて、左の職員を置く。
  部長
  地方事務官
  専任九百六十人 二級
  専任千四百二人 三級
第3条 部長は、二級の地方事務官を以てこれに充てる。 部長は、地方長官の指揮監督を承けて、部務を掌理し、部下の官吏を指揮監督する。
第4条 地方長官は必要に応じて、地方世話部出張所を置くことができる。
附則
この勅令は、公布の日から、これを施行する。

(参照15) 地方自治法附則第10条

(参照16) 地方自治法施行令附則第6条

(参照17) 大正4年勅令第101号「樺太ノ町村編制ニ関スル件」(6月28日公布、8月1日施行)

(参照18) 大正10年法律第47号(4月8日公布、大正11年4月1日施行)

(参照19) 大正11年勅令第8号(1月23日公布、4月1日施行)

(参照20) 昭和4年法律第2号(3月27日公布、7月1日施行)

(参照21) 昭和12年法律第1号(3月23日公布、6月25日施行)

(参照22) 昭和18年法律第80号及び同第81号により、樺太の市町村に関する規定が市制(明治44年法律第68号)及び町村制(明治44年法律第69号)並びにこれらの付属法令に移管され、樺太市制及び樺太町村制は廃止されました(3月20日公布)

(参照23)「樺太庁官制」については、ソ連による樺太占領後も、の一部改正が行われたことがありますが(昭和20年10月6日勅令第560号)、昭和22年法律第72号「日本国憲法施行の際現に効力を有する命令の規定の効力等に関する法律」第1条の3の規定により、失効しています。地方総監府は、前述の通り、昭和20年11月6日付で廃止となり、北海道庁長官が樺太庁及び北海道庁の総合調整を掌るとされていた昭和20年勅令第624号も、都道府県の上に広域地方行政組織が存在することを懸念したGHQの指導により、昭和22年5月1日に廃止となりました。同時に、北海地方行政事務室も廃止となっています。
 ちなみに、昭和22年法律第72号第1条の3の規定は、以下の通りです。

昭和22年法律第72号(日本国憲法施行の際現に効力を有する命令の規定の効力等に関する法律)
第1条の3  行政官庁に関する従来の命令の規定で、法律を以て規定すべき事項を規定するものは、昭和二十三年国家行政組織に関する法律が制定施行される日の前日まで、法律と同一の効力を有するものとする。


Q&A 2. 樺太の位置と歴史と現状

Q:  我々の先人方がロシアに先んじて開拓を行った樺太について教えて下さい。

A:  樺太は、北海道の北側に在る細長い島であり、北海道と同じ程度の面積を有しています。樺太は、樺太島とも呼ばれ、同島の南端は、宗谷岬から約43kmに位置しています。樺太は、17世紀後半に、松前藩の漁業基地として、その開拓が始められましたが(1)、有史以来、19世紀初頭に至るまで、ロシア帝国(2)の影響下に置かれた事はありませんでした。しかし、19世紀に入ると、同帝国が樺太の領有に関心を持ち始めます。江戸幕府、後に明治政府は、ロシア帝国の南進を阻止すべく尽力したものの、力及ばず、明治8年(1875年)に、樺太千島交換条約により、やむなく樺太を放棄しました(3)。その30年後、国力増強を果たした我が国と南下政策を推し進めていたロシア帝国の緊張が限界に達し、日露戦争が始まります。我が国は、苦戦を強いられたものの、陸海に於いて露軍に勝利し、この戦争の最中、樺太奪還に成功します。但し、明治38年(1905年)に開かれた日露講和会議で、我が国の樺太北部放棄(4)が決せられた為、結果的には、樺太南部(5)のみの回復となりました。
 樺太南部は、明治38年の日本復帰から先の大戦終結までの40年間、我が国の統治下、大きな発展を遂げる事となります。同地には、樺太庁という行政機関が置かれ、最盛期には、約41万人の日本人が居住していたのです。当時は、現在の都道府県に相当する行政機関を庁府県と呼称しましたので、樺太庁は、現在風に言えば、樺太県と捉える事が出来るかも知れません。樺太南部は、大戦末期まで、米軍の空襲に遭う事もなく比較的平和でしたが、昭和20年8月9日のソ連軍侵攻(6)により、地獄と化しました。ソ連は、二国間で調印された日ソ中立条約を一方的に破棄し、突如攻め入って来たのです。ソ連は、8月15日の終戦後も、樺太南部への攻撃を継続し、我が国がソ連軍に派遣した停戦の使者までも殺害しました。8月20日には、樺太西海岸の真岡に艦砲射撃が加えられ、8月22日には、日ソ両軍の停戦協定成立後に、樺太庁所在地の豊原が空襲に遭いました。また、同日22日早朝には、留萌沖でも大変悲しい出来事が起きました。多くの老幼婦女子を乗せた樺太からの緊急避難船三隻が、ソ連軍の潜水艦により、大破・撃沈され、約1,700名が海中に没したのです。これら一連のソ連軍の熾烈な攻撃により、樺太南部では多数の民間人が犠牲となりました。その後、ソ連が一方的に樺太南部の領有を宣言したのは、昭和20年9月の事です。
 平成25年現在、ソビエト連邦の後継国であるロシア連邦(7)が、樺太島全体、北方四島(8)並びに千島列島北部(9)にサハリン州という地方自治体を設置し、これらを実効支配しています。尚、日本政府は、北方四島は、我が国固有の領土であるとして、ロシア連邦にその返還を求めていますし、千島列島北部並びに樺太南部に関しては、それらの最終的な帰属は未定であるとして、同地域に於けるロシア連邦の主権を認めてはいません。つまり、樺太北部はロシア連邦の領土ですが、樺太南部は何処の国にも属さない所属未定地なのです(10)。

【備考】
(1) 樺太アイヌは、唐以降の中国歴代王朝に朝貢していた時期もありましたが、中国王朝は、積極的な樺太統治を行わなかった為、樺太先住民族の村落的な自治は維持されました。
(2), (6), (7) ロシア帝国はソ連(ソビエト連邦)の前身であり、ロシア連邦はソ連の後継国です。
(3) 我が国は、樺太放棄と引き換えに、ロシア帝国より千島列島北部を譲り受けましたが、この交換は、我が国が望んだものではありませんでした。
(4) 樺太北部(北緯50度以北の樺太島)
(5) 樺太南部(北緯50度以南の樺太島)
(8) 北方四島(歯舞群島、色丹島、国後島及び択捉島の4島)
(9) 千島列島北部(得撫島から占守島までの18島)
(10) 我が国は、サンフランシスコ平和条約により、樺太南部を放棄したものの、この条約は、樺太南部の最終所属先を決してはいません。


Q&A 1. 南樺太の地図

Q: 世界地図で、南樺太の色は、日本ともロシアとも違う、白色に塗られているのは何故ですか。

A: 第二次大戦末期の1945年8月ソ連軍は、突如、日ソ中立条約を破って南樺太、千島列島に侵攻、占領し自らの領土と宣言しました。
 戦後のサンフランシスコ平和条約(1951年9月署名、以下「シスコ条約」と略す。)では、第2条C 項で「日本国は南樺太・千島列島に対する全ての権限及び請求権を放棄する」と規定されています。しかし、この条約ではこれらの地域が最終的にどこに帰属するかにつて何も決めていません。ソ連崩壊後のロシアは、現在も事実上これらの地域に施政を及ぼしていますが、国際法上どこに帰属するかは、今なお未定なのです。
 シスコ条約締結の際の平和会議において、日本の吉田全権は次のように発言(要旨)をしています。「南樺太及び千島列島は、日本の侵略によって奪取したものだとのソ連全権の主張は承服できない。国後・択捉両島が日本領であることは、帝政ロシアも何ら異議がなかったのである。1875年5月、日露間で両国人混在であった樺太南部を露領、北千島を日本領とする交換条約が締結された。その後、樺太南部は1905年9月ルーズベルト・アメリカ合衆国大統領の仲介によるポーツマス平和条約で、日本領となったのである。樺太南部及び千島列島は、日本降伏直後の9月、一方的にソ連領に収容されたのである。」
 1956年9月、米国国務省はソ連のシスコ条約不参加に関し、要旨が次のとおりの覚書を発表しました。「シスコ条約は、ソ連が署名を拒否したから、同国に対して何らの権利を付与するものではない。また、日本が放棄させられた領土の主権帰属は、同条約とは別個の国際的手段に任せられるべきである。」
 現在、日本での市販の世界地図の各国色別では、南樺太・北千島はロシアの色(薄青)でなく白色であり、樺太については宗谷海峡と北緯50度線にそれぞれ国境線が引かれていて、ロシア領ではないことを示しています。

 (付記)領土問題に関しては、樺太と千島列島とは不可分の関係があるので、二者併せて説明しました。


Karafuto Q&A
(For any questions on Karafuto, please feel free to use this "contact form".)


Q-6: Please tell us a brief history of Kensuke Okamoto's life and his achievement of an around-the-island-of-Karafuto trip.

A-6:
Kensuke Okamoto was born in Awa Province, Japan in 1839. It was close to the end of the Edo era. Also, Awa Province was nearly equivalent to today's Tokushima Prefecture. In Sanuki Province, which is today's Kagawa Prefecture, Okamoto first heard of Karafuto Island at the age of 17 and became interested in the island. In Edo, which is today's Tokyo, Okamoto, at the age of 22, found a book written by Rinzoh Mamiya, who is known as the discoverer of the Mamiya Strait, and he came to aspire to explore the island.
In 1863, Okamoto, at the age of 25, first landed Karafuto Island and explored southern parts of the island. He once went back to Hakodate in Hokkaidoh where a Shogunate fort existed. In 1864, he gained Shogunate permission to live in Karafuto Island and landed the island again. At this time, Okamoto explored wider areas of the island and saw the old year out over there. Around that time, he seemed to become famous as an expert on Karafuto affairs.
From the Genji period in the late Edo era (1864 - 1865), Okamoto had been working in a Shogunate office in Kushunkotan (the former name of Ohdomari), a southern part of Karafuto Island. During his stay in Kushunkotan, he asked the Shogunate for permission to make an around-the-island trip and was granted the permission on April 19, 1865. Denkuroh Nishimura who was working in a Shogunate office in Waare (a place on the eastern coast of the southern part of Karafuto Island) was fluent in the Ainu language. He had promised to accompany Okamoto on the trip, provided that Shogunate permission to make the trip was granted. It is said that one of the biggest reasons why Okamoto asked the Shogunate for permission to make the trip was that the-Ainu-language-speaking Nishimura had been cooperative.
Okamoto departed Kushunkotan on April 25, 1865 and joined Nishimura in Waare 9 days later. Accompanied by 5 locals, Okamoto and Nishimura departed Waare on June 3, 1865 and reached Lake Taraika located in a middle-eastern part of Karafuto Island 5 days later. The expeditionary party lead by Okamoto replenished their small ship with 600 kilograms of rice at the lake and kept going north. The party finally reached Cape Gawoto (Cape Elizabeth), the northernmost part of Karafuto Island on August 16, 1865. Okamoto set up a pole with a sign saying, "a territory of the Great Empire of Japan" (1). On August 28, Okamoto passed through Nanio, a village on the northwestern coast of Karafuto Island. It was the northernmost point that Rinzoh Mamiya reached in the island in 1809. Okamoto and Nishimura came back to Waare on September 22 and separated from each other there. On October 12, 1865, Okamoto came back to Kushunkotan, the starting point of the around-island trip. The Around-the-Island-of-Karafuto Trip was first achieved in history (2).
In early January 1868, the Tokugawa Shogunate collapsed, and the new government of Japan called "the Meiji Government" was established. The Meiji government created a branch office called "the Hakodate Court Office" in Hokkaidoh in 1868. Karafuto and Hokkaidoh started to be governed by this office. The court office was one month later reorganized into the Hakodate Prefectural Office. Then Kinnaru Shimizudani, the governor of the prefecture, appointed Okamoto as supreme head of Karafuto Island. Although, even after this, the Meiji government's ruling systems over the island changed over and over, Okamoto kept working in a Meiji government office in Kushunkotan and stayed the actual head of the branch of the Meiji government in Karafuto Island. However, while Okamoto was making great efforts to manage the island, the Russian Empire was planning to deprive Japan of the island. Russia wanted to turn Karafuto Island into her penal colony. At that time, Russia began to exile many prisoners into Karafuto Island. Based on the Provisional Regulations on Karafuto Island, which the Romanov Dynasty nearly forced the Tokugawa Shogunate to sign at the end of the Edo period, Russia regarded the island as a condominium.
By the beginning of the Meiji era, the Russian Empire had already exiled so many prisoners into Karafuto Island. As a result, some of high ranking Japanese officials such as Kiyotaka Kuroda began to believe that it would be impossible for Japan to defend the island from Russia. Since the high ranking officials began to advocate renouncing the island, Okamoto, who were trying to prevent the Russian invasion nearly alone, was placed in a very difficult position also by the high ranking officials of his own country. The officials disappointed Okamoto so much. Consequently, he, with great sorrow and grief, resigned his position in Kushunkotan and left Karafuto Island in 1870.

[Remarks]
(1) Based on a statement written in "Kabaren no Shiori", a pamphlet of All Japan Federation of Karafuto.
(2) *Okamoto explored and surveyed southern parts of Karafuto Island in 1863 and 1864. The Around-the-Island-of-Karafuto Trip that Okamoto achieved in 1865 did not cover southwestern and some other parts of the island such as the Notoro Peninsula. However, the combination of the explorations and the surveys achieved by Okamoto in 1863, 1864, and 1865 is considered to be the Around-the-Island-of-Karafuto Trip.
*In various Karafuto-related books and materials, Okamoto is introduced as the first Japanese that succeeded in the Around-the-Island-of-Karafuto Trip in 1865. However, between Mamiya's discovery of the Mamiya Strait in 1809 and Okamoto's trip in 1865, there are no records that someone explored nearly the entire island of Karafuto. Therefore Okamoto is considered to be the first person that achieved the Around-the-Island-of-Karafuto Trip in history.

(Reference Materials)
"Karafuto-Shi Monogatari" (a History of Karafuto) - Author: Raihachi Miyazaki
"Karafuto Tanken no Hitobito" (People Who Explored Karafuto) - Author: Sadaka Nishitsuru
"Kitaezo Shinshi" (New Aspiration on Kitaezo [Karafuto]) - Author: Bunpei Okamoto (Kensuke Okamoto)
"Hoppoh Keibi to Meiji Ishin" (Defense over the Northern Territories and the Meiji Restoration) - Author: Onodera Mitsuru

Q&A5: A Brief History Of Karafuto Until The Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (The Treaty Of Saint Petersburg) in 1875

Q-5: Could you explain a brief history of Karafuto until the Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (the Treaty of Saint Petersburg) in 1875?

A-5:

Native inhabitants in Karafuto Island first appeared in history in a relatively detailed manner around the period from the 13th to the 14th centuries. This is because the Yuan Dynasty in China at that time invaded northern areas of Karafuto and recorded the native inhabitants' life in process of making them tributary to the dynasty. Three main groups of the native inhabitants in Karafuto were Ainus, Uiltas (Oroks), and Nivkhs (Gilyaks). The Ainus lived mainly in southern parts of the island, the Uiltas (the Oroks) lived around Shisuka, a middle-eastern part of the island, and the Nivkhs (the Gilyaks) lived mainly in northwestern parts of the island. For your reference, although the Ainus in Karafuto Island are occasionally called the Karafuto Ainus so as to distinguish them from Ainus in Hokkaidoh Island and the Chishima Islands (the Kuril Islands), the Ainus in these three areas are the same race.
Even after the Yuan Dynasty's reign from the 13th to the 14th centuries, tributary relationships between succeeding dynasties in China, namely the Ming and the Qing Dynasties, and the native inhabitants mainly in the northern areas of Karafuto had been maintained with occasional interruptions. Note that the tributary relationships mentioned above were basically such that the native inhabitants from time to time sent furs and others to the dynasties. Thus the tributary relationships were somewhat perfunctory and were actually close to trading. After the mid-19th century, the Qing Dynasty began to be so weakened by various aggressions conducted by the Western powers. When the Romanov Dynasty in Russia deprived the Qing Dynasty of tremendously vast areas of land on the opposite shore of Karafuto in the latter half of the 19th century, the tributary relationships between the Chinese dynasties and the native inhabitants mainly in the northern areas of Karafuto were completely terminated.
While the tributary relationships between the Chinese dynasties and the native inhabitants mainly in the northern areas of Karafuto Island had been perfunctorily maintained, the Matsumaes, one of Japan's warlords, in the 17th century established a fishery base in Kushunkotan, or today's Ohdomari located in a southern part of the island. Development of Karafuto by the Matsumaes began in this manner. For your reference, an ancient state called "Wakoku" was formed approximately two thousand years ago, and she changed her name into "Nippon (Japan)" around the 7th century, because "Wakoku" had been a derogatory name for Japan by China. Japan assimilated the entire central part and the entire northern part of Honshuh around by the 7th century and the 12th century, respectively. Concerning Karafuto, Chishima, and Hokkaidoh, the Matsumaes compiled a map which included these three areas as their own sovereign land, and the map was submitted to the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1700. Therefore, by this time, the Shogunate came to recognize these three areas as its own sovereign territories. Referring to the Matsumaes' rule over Karafuto, they surveyed the island northwards up to Shisuka in the first half of the 17th century (a) and also built another base in Shiranushi in the mid-18th century. Shiranushi is near the southernmost tip of the island, and the base built there was like the one in Kushunkotan. Function of the bases was to regulate fishery activities and trading with the Ainus.
In the latter half of the 17th century, the Qing Dynasty in China and the Romanov Dynasty in Russia had a power struggle like a territorial dispute along with the Heilong River (Russian Name: the Amur River). China defeated Russia in this struggle. The Romanov Dynasty' sphere of influence was pushed back to the fairly far north of the Heilong River (the Amur River). As a result, the Romanov Dynasty, for the purpose of going south, started to make a detour avoiding the Qing Dynasty's sphere of influence. By this detour strategy, the Kamchatka Peninsula and the northern portion of the Chishima Islands fell into Russian hands. Passing through her newly conquered areas, the Romanov Dynasty kept her expansion policy and finally reached the southern portion of the Chishima Islands, Hokkaidoh, and Karafuto in the period from the second half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century.
Due to the expansionism of Russia, the Tokugawa Shogunate at last realized need of defense over its own northern territories, or the Chishima Islands, Hokkaidoh, and Karafuto. In 1785, under the leadership of Okitsugu Tanuma, the Shogunate dispatched groups of surveyors and researchers to the northern territories. Tanuma was a "Rohjuh", one of actual seconds in command in the Shogunate. Focusing only on Karafuto, southern parts of the island were surveyed and researched at that time. However, in the next year, Tanuma was discharged from his position as "Rohjuh". After his discharge, the Shogunate paid little attention to northern territorial matters. As a result, Russians started to appear in the northern territories fairly frequently. Since the Matsumaes hid and did not report this incoming presence of the Russians, the Shogunate gradually began to doubt the Matsumaes' ability to defend the northern territories. In 1792, the Shogunate organized survey and research projects on the northern territories independently from the Matsumaes. At that time, Tokunai Mogami and some others were sent to Karafuto. They surveyed and researched the island northwards up to Kushunnai, a mid-southern part on the western coast of Karafuto, and submitted reports to the Shogunate. Even after this, the Shogunate continued northern territorial survey and research independently from the Matsumaes. Taking all things into consideration, the Shogunate in 1807 decided to take away the ruling power over the northern territories from the Matsumaes. Thus the northern territories including Karafuto were put under the direct rule of the Shogunate.
In the spring of 1808, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Denjuhroh Matsuda and Rinzoh Mamiya to Karafuto for the purpose of various studies on the island. During their stay in Karafuto, they surveyed and researched the island up to its northern areas. When Matsuda and Mamiya visited the northern areas, they noticed the fact that Karafuto is an island completely apart from the continent. Till that moment, the possibility that Karafuto was a peninsula of the continent on the opposite shore of itself had not been eliminated. In the summer of 1808, they returned to Sohya, a northernmost tip of Hokkaidoh. Rinzoh, however, right after his return, went back to Karafuto again. Rinzoh saw the old year out in a southern part of Karafuto and reached a Nivkhs village in 1809. The village was located in a northwestern part of Karafuto. Rinzoh spent some time in the village and became very close to villagers. Trusted by the villagers, he was allowed to go to the continent with the head of the village. The head was to go to the Manchuria Provisional Office of the Qing Dynasty to pay tribute. The office was seasonal and was located on the opposite shore of Karafuto. Vast areas of the continent on the opposite shore were under the rule of the provisional office. In the office, Rinzoh had a meeting with officials of the Qing Dynasty, and he was informed of how northern affairs around Karafuto were like. After the meeting, Rinzoh came back to Karafuto with the head of the village. By this round trip between Karafuto and the continent, the Karafuto-Peninsula-View was completely denied. Additionally, Rinzoh's name has been carved in history as the discoverer of the strait between Karafuto and the continent. It has been called THE MAMIYA STRAIT. By the way, in 1809, the Tokugawa Shogunate declared the official name of Karafuto Island. The Shogunate came to call the island "Kia-Ezochi" in official occasions.
Later, in 1821, since tension between Japan and Russia around the northern territories had somewhat eased, the Tokugawa Shogunate returned the ruling rights over the territories including Karafuto to the Matsumaes; however, since the tension between the two countries around the areas again had increased by 1855, the Shogunate again had to remove the Matsumaes as warlord in the northern territories. Referring to incidents related to this increased tension, a year and two years before the removal, the Romanov Dynasty in Russia, mainly for the purpose of commerce, had sent a group of delegates to Japan. At that time, the Tokugwa Shogunate, Japan's actual government, also had to have meetings with the delegates in order to negotiate border issues between Japan and Russia, namely border issues on Karafuto and Chishima. The Matsumaes, merely a local warlord, were unable to do highly diplomatic negotiations of this kind. The Romanov delegates in 1853 and 1854 were both led by Commodore Jevfimij Putjatin. To deal with the delegates, the Shogunate appointed Toshiakira Kawaji and others as negotiators. A series of meetings were held in 1853 and 1854. The meetings in 1853 and 1854 were held in Nagasaki, northern Kyuhshuh and Shimoda, central Honshuh, respectively. After the series of meetings, the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and Russia (the Treaty of Shimoda) was signed in 1855. By this treaty, the northern portion of the Chishima Islands from the north of Urup became a Russian territory, the southern portion of the Chishima Islands from the south of Etorofu became a Japanese territory, the exact border on Karafuto was not fixed, and Japan and Russia agreed to keep traditional rules over Karafuto (1, 2, 3, 4).
Around the mid-19th century when the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation between Japan and Russia (the Treaty of Shimoda) was signed, East Asian countries including Japan were militarily interfered by the Western powers. Like the other Asian and African countries, the East Asian countries were shaken and shaken by the Westerners. The Opium War from 1840 to 1842 was the beginning of the Western interference. The Qing Dynasty in China was defeated by Britain in the war and was deprived even of a part of her sovereign land, namely Hong Kong. After the war, Russia started to regard weakened China as a target for invasion. Virtually forced to sign the treaties of Aigun and Beijing in 1858 and 1860, the Qing Dynasty ceded "tremendously vast areas of land on the opposite shore of Karafuto" called "the left bank of the Heilong River" and "the Maritime Territory" to the Romanov Dynasty in Russia. Russia sought further expansion of her territory also into Japan. Leading several warships to Shinagawa Bay, Edo (an old name of Tokyo) in 1859, Eastern Siberian Governor Nikolay Muraviev made a trip to Japan so as to make the Shogunate cede Karafuto Island to the Romanov Dynasty. Although, at that time, the Shogunate strongly refused the Governor's demand and managed to repel him, Russia put constant pressure on Karafuto Island. Japan sent Kensuke Okamoto, a specialist on northern affairs, to the island and attempted to maintain defense over Karafuto. However, finally in 1867, Hidezane Koide, Japan's Ambassador sent to Saint Petersburg, Russia in order to resolve territorial disputes on Karafuto was made to provisionally sign "the Provisional Regulations on Karafuto Island". Considering threats from the military power of Russia, Koide had no choice but to sign the provisional regulations. The regulations turned Karafuto into an island of condominium (5). Russian influence on Karafuto became stronger and stronger. Russia started to utilize Karafuto as a place of exile and started to exile fairly many criminals to the island. Under these circumstances, Japan experienced the Meiji Restoration and a civil war. As a result, by the beginning of the Meiji era, Japan had practically lost her sovereign power over Karafuto. The Meiji Government that replaced the Tokugawa Shogunate as the ruling authorities in Japan let Kensuke Okamoto administer Karafuto Island and then established over there "the Development Commission Office" and "the Karafuto Development Commission Office" so as to recover sovereign power over the island. Although, through these offices, Japan attempted to administer Karafuto, Japan's unfavorable situations over the island never changed. At last, in 1872, Japan asked Russia to withdraw her forces from the island in return for monetary compensation. However, a series of negotiations on this matter kept failing. Japan, in 1875, consequently reached a point where she believed that it would be impossible to defend Karafuto from Russia (6). Pressed by Russia, Japan reluctantly signed "The Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (The Treaty of Saint Petersburg)" in 1875. In the name of exchange with the northern portion of the Chishima Islands, which were sterile islands, Karafuto Island was virtually ceded to Russia.

(1) In the early 19th century, Russia suddenly started to claim sovereignty over Karafuto Island. Japan, who had already surveyed and researched the island by the 17th century, strongly denied the Russian territorial claims over Karafuto through the series of meetings in Nagasaki and Shimoda. As a result, Japan and Russia agreed to keep traditional rules over Karafuto.
(2) The traditional rules over Karafuto are as follows: Areas at least up to the mouth of the Heilong River (the Amur River), which is on the opposite shore of Northern Karafuto, belong to Japan (b, c, d).
(3) Japan and Russia both agreed to recognize Japan's sovereignty over places in Karafuto Island that Japanese or Ainus had inhabited prior to the meetings in Nagasaki. Therefore, Japan and Russia agreed to write this down and agreed to attach a written statement as an appendix to the treaty.
(4) Although Russia once agreed to attach the written statement as an appendix to the treaty, she later repeatedly asked Japan to delete the appendix. This was because there were tracks (geographical names) indicating that Ainus had lived up to the northernmost tip of Karafuto Island. In short, the contents of the appendix meant "The entire Island of Karafuto belongs to Japan". Since Russia repeatedly and repeatedly asked Japan to delete the appendix, Japan agreed to delete it.
(5) "The Provisional Regulations on Karafuto Island" first turned Karafuto into an island of condominium. Prior to the regulations, Russia had admitted at least some southern parts near Aniwa Bay (around Ohdomari) belonged to Japan. However, by the regulations, the entire island of Karafuto including the southern parts became an island of condominium.
(6) Although Japan's unfavorable situations over the island of Karafuto never changed, Japan had kept negotiating with Russia. Through the series of negotiations, Russia at a moment thought about giving up Karafuto. However, Russia noticed existence of some high-ranking Japanese officials in the Meiji Government who had been also thinking about renouncing Karafuto. After Russia noticed the existence of the high-ranking officials, she began to put stronger pressure on the Meiji Government of Japan. Japan was finally pressed to sign "The Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (The Treaty of Saint Petersburg)".
[Sources and Sourced Parts]
(a) "Karafutoshi no Shiori" ("A Pamphlet on the History of Karafuto"), Author: Sadaka Nishitsuru, P9 & P24
 Land up to Taraika was surveyed and researched in 1637. Taraika refers to land around today's Shisuka.
(b) "Bakushin Kawaji Toshiakira no Nikki" ("Shogunate Official Toshiakira Kawaji's Diary"), Author: Hiroko Kawagoe, P135
 A statement in P24 in "Zoku-Nippon Furyoki, Roshia Shikan no Mita Tokugawa Nippon" ("Captivity in Japan II, Tokugawa Japan Viewed by a Russian Military Officer"), Translator: Shintaroh Tokutake, Publisher: Kohdansha Gakujutsu Bunko, says, "The southern half of Sakhalin Island belongs to Japan, and the northern half belongs to China". In short, this statement denies Russian sovereignty over Karafuto Island.
(c) "Nagasaki Nikki-Shimoda Nikki" ("Records on the Meetings in Nagasaki and Shimoda"), Author: Toshiakira Kawaji, Remarks prepared by Sadafumi Fujii and Sadao Kawata, P 160
 Kawaji's statements in the meetings such that, although areas at least up to the mouth of the Heilong River (the Amur River) belong to Japan, no areas in Karafuto has belonged to Russia. We should keep the traditional rules over Karafuto," are introduced.
(d) "Karafuto Boei no Omoide" ("Memory of Defense over Karafuto"), Author: Yasuo Suzuki, P 55
 The traditional rules over Karafuto are as follows: Areas at least up to Cape Laxa in Northern Karafuto belong to Japan. Karafuto is never an island of condominium.




Q-4. Please explain the outline of railways in Karafuto (under Japanese administration).

A-4. Map


1. Generalities

Railways in Karafuto originated from a light railway constructed by the Imperial Army of Japan. The light railway was for use in military transport and was equipped with a 600 mm gauge track. Compared with 1067 mm gauge railways typical in regions south of Hokkaidoh, the light railway in Karafuto was small-sized.
After Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) was established, the management of the light railway was transferred from the army to the prefecture. After the transfer of the management, the 600 mm gauge was widened to 1067 mm gauge in 1910 for the purpose of increase of carrying capacity.
Since the railway in Karafuto was run by Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) which was a branch of the central government of Japan, it was nationally-owned. However, later, private railways, tramways, and more nationally-owned railways were constructed in several areas in Karafuto. In April, 1918, the prefecture opened a railway office so as to manage the nationally-owned railways in Karafuto. That is, the private ones and tramways were not under the management of the prefectural railway office. In April, 1943, the Ministry of Railways took over the management of the nationally-owned railways in Karafuto and opened the Karafuto Railway Bureau.

2. Particulars
From here, we will discuss the nationally-owned railways and the private ones and tramways in Karafuto separately.

a) In November, 1943, several months after the Ministry of Railways had taken over the management of the nationally-owned railways in Karafuto, the management was again taken over by the Ministry of Transportation and Communications due to the reorganization of Japan's ministries and agencies. There existed four railway lines in this category.

[i] the Karafuto Western Railway Line: In October, 1920, this railway line was constructed between Honto and Maoka which were large towns located on the western coast of Karafuto. In December, 1937, this was extended to Kushunnai. Although an extension of the railway line north of Kushunnai was under construction, the construction has been stopped. The Karafuto Western Railway Line had two branch lines. The main line ran from Honto to Kushunnai via Maoka. One branch line ran between Honto and Hama-Honto, which was a freight depot, whereas the other branch line ran between Maoka and Hama-Maoka, which was also a freight depot. Referring to the length of the three lines, the main one and the two branch ones were 170.1 km, 1.3 km, and 1.8 km, respectively.
In order for passengers and freight to be able to transfer to the Karafuto Western Railway Line conveniently from Wakkanai-Sanbashi, which was the northernmost railway station in Hokkaidoh, a cross-channel ship called "Chito- Renrakusen" was operated by Kitanihon Kisen KK* (Today's Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd.).

[ii] the Karafuto Eastern Railway Line: This railway line had two branch lines as with the Karafuto Western Railway Line. The main line ran from Ohdomari-Minato to Koton through Toyohara and Shisuka. Ohdomari-Minato was considered to be the gateway to the northernmost part of Japan, and Koton was located approximately 17 km away from the international boundary between Japan and Russia (the Soviet Union). It was the northernmost terminal of the nation-owned railway systems in Japan. Note that Toyohara was the prefectural capital. One branch line separating from the main line at Ochiai was laid to Sakaehama. The other branch line for freight service was laid from Sakaehama to Sakaehama-Kaigan. Referring to the length of the three lines, the main one and the two branch ones were 414.1 km, 10.3 km, and 1.8 km, respectively.
The Karafuto Eastern Railway Line was originally the light railway mentioned in the generalities at the beginning of this Q&A 4. The operation of the light railway began between Nankei-Choh, a part of Ohdomari, and Toyohara in December, 1906, and its management was transferred from the army to the prefecture in August, 1907. One branch line was extended to Sakaehama in December, 1911, and the other branch line was extended to Sakaehama-Kaigan in April, 1914. Although the branch line between Sakaehama and Sakaehama-Kaigan was for freight service, passengers were also allowed to utilize this line until 1943.
Later, in March, 1941, Karafuto Tetsudoh KK*, a private railway company of which line was laid between Ochiai and Shisuka, was acquired by Karafuto Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture). Through this acquisition, the Karafuto Eastern Railway Line was extended to Shisuka. In November in the same year, it was again extended to Kami-Shisuka which was to the north of Shisuka. The railway line was kept being extended to the north. It was laid to Keton in November, 1943 and was finally laid to Koton in August, 1944. The railway line between Kami-Shisuka and Koton was for military use.
In order for passengers and freight to be able to transfer to the Karafuto Eastern Railway Line conveniently from Wakkanai-Sanbashi, a cross-channel ship called "Chihaku-Renrakusen" was operated between this northernmost railway station in Hokkaidoh and Ohdomari-Minato.

[iii] the Kawakami Railway Line: There existed a coalfield called "Naibuchi-Tanden", which was approximately twenty kilometers to the southwest of Sakaehama. There also existed a coalmine called "Kawakami-Tanzan", which was to the south of the coalfield. The Kawakami Railway Line was constructed so as to develop this coalmine. The railway line ran between Konuma and the coalmine, and its length was 21.9 km. Konuma was in Toyokita Village, Toyosakae County.
In April, 1914, the operation of the railway between Konuma and Oku-Kawakami was begun by the prefecture. From Oku-Kawakami to the coalmine, the operation of the railway was run by Mitsui Tankoh KK*.
Although the railway between Oku-Kawakami and the coalmine was originally equipped with a 600 mm gauge track, the gauge was at a later time widened to 1067 mm. The railway newly equipped with a wider gauge was leased to Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) in October, 1922 and was finally taken over by the prefecture in February, 1925.

[iv] the Hohshin Railway Line: This railway line ran between Konuma and Tei(a part of Maoka), and its length was 76.2 km. This railway was constructed so as to connect the Karafuto Western Railway Line and the Karafuto Eastern Railway Line. When the construction of a railway line between the two lines was first planned, the route was set as follows: Kaizuka - Tarannai - Honto. However, during the 43rd Imperial Diet in 1920, a bill on an additional budget for the construction of the railway line was passed. Consequently, a new route, which was from Toyohara to Maoka, was set up. The construction was begun from both sides of the line, namely, Toyohara and Maoka. The operation of the whole railway line started in September, 1928.
On July 15, 1945, the railway service between Toyohara and Oku-Suzuya was abolished. Instead, from Oku-Suzuya to Konuma, a new railway service started to be utilized. As a result, Oku-Suzuya replaced Toyohara as the starting station. Also, due to this replacement, the Hohshin Railway Line and the Kawakami Railway Line came to share exactly the same track between the signal station at Nishi-Konuma and Konuma.
The Hohshin Railway Line had to go through the Karafuto Mountains, so there was a hard spot in the route. The spot was in the Ikenohata-Takaradai area. A loop line encircling the hard spot was constructed so that the locomotive and train cars could pass the spot by encircling and climbing it. The length of the radius of the loop was 192 meters, and it was called "Ruhpusen". The intersection of the loop was such that the upper part was a bridge, and the lower part was a tunnel. Concerning the structure of the bridge, it consisted mainly of the following parts: a horizontal steel board composed of four 12.2 m steel plate girders and a 9 m one, and a 45.72 m trussed girder. Thus this was a fairly large bridge. When the locomotive and train cars pass the hard spot by encircling and climbing it, the passengers in the train cars enjoyed two tunnels. The loop line was a popular place to visit.
Additionally speaking, Takinosawa on the Hohshin Railway Line was the highest station in the railway systems in Karafuto at a height of 407 meters above sea level.

b) We will discuss the private railways and tramways in Karafuto. There mainly existed three railway lines in this category.

[i] the Nanka Railway Line: This railway line connected Shinba and Ruhtaka, and its length was 18.6 km. The operation of the railway was begun by Nanka Tetsudoh KK* in October, 1926.

[ii] the Teikoku Nenryoh Kohgyoh Gaisha Naibuchi Railway Line: This railway line connected Ohtani on the Karafuto Eastern Railway Line and Naibuchi. Its length was 23.2 km. The railway line originally began to be operated by Karafuto Jinzoh Sekiyu KK* in August, 1943.

[iii] the Teikoku Nenryoh Kohgyoh Gaisha Naihoro Railway Line: This railway line connected Honto on the Karafuto Western Railway Line and a coalmine called "Naihoro-Tanzan". Its length was 16.4 km. The railway line originally began to be operated by Minami Karafuto Tankoh Tetsudoh KK* in October, 1931. It was later taken over by Mitsubishi Sekitanyuka Kohgyoh KK* and was finally taken over by Teikoku Nenryoh Kohgyoh KK*.

Besides the railways mentioned above, there were tramways such as the
Naikawa Tankoh Tramway that connected Shisuka and Naikawa. We will discuss details of the tramways on another occasion.

*Remarks: "KK" stands for "Kabushiki-Kaisha". A stock company in Japan is normally called either "Kabushiki-Kaisha" or "Kabushiki-Gaisha".



Q&A 3:

Q-3 (1): Please explain the outline of Karafuto-Choh, which is commonly translated as the Karafuto Prefecture.

A-3 (1):
1. Administrative organizations which had ruled and governed Karafuto
Prior to the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, Karafuto had been, in principle, under the rule of the Matsumaes, one of Japan's warlords. However, later, there were periods when Karafuto had been under the direct rule of the Tokugawa Shogunate. After the Restoration of the Imperial Rule (the Meiji Restoration), Karafuto and Hokkaidoh were initially governed by the Hakodate Court Office and later by the Hakodate Prefectural Office. In 1869, the Development Commission Office was established in order to oversee Karafuto and Hokkaidoh. In 1870, the Commission Office was divided into the Karafuto Development Commission Office and the Hokkaidoh Development Commission Office; however, the two offices were again consolidated into one office (the Development Commission Office) in1871.
The Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (The Treaty of Saint Petersburg) resulted in a temporary loss of Japan's sovereignty over Karafuto. However, due to Japan's subsequent victory in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan regained sovereignty over South Karafuto (the southern portion of Karafuto Island that separates from the northern portion at the latitude of 50 degrees north). During the Russo-Japanese War, the Karafuto Civil Administration Office, which was actually a military government, was established in Aleksandrovsk in 1905. The actual military government was soon moved to Ohdomari. Less than two years after the military government was moved to Ohdomari, an ordinance on the establishment of Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) (Reference 1) was sanctioned and promulgated with the Privy Council's deliberation. Upon the promulgation and the enforcement of the ordinance, the military government was reorganized into Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) in 1907. It was finally moved to Toyohara in 1908. The chief administrative officer of Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) was an Imperial appointee called Chohkan (the Prefect). Under the direction and supervision of the Minister of Home Affairs, the Prefect administered laws and ordinances and was responsible for managing Karafuto's development and administrative affairs. When Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) was established, sub-prefectural and local offices were set up at the same time. Although the Prefect was not authorized to issue laws, legislative codes, and legislative regulations, he had administrative control over settlers (Reference 2). In addition, heads of the sub-prefectural offices under direction and supervision of the Prefect were able to issue sub-prefectural ordinances on behalf of the Prefect. (Reference 3) The Prefect could delegate his administrative duties to the heads of sub-prefectural offices or mayors (Reference 4). Taking all things into consideration, the post closest to that of the Prefect of Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) was probably the post of the Prefect of Hokkaidoh-Choh (the Hokkaidoh Prefecture). (Reference 5) For more information on the sub-prefectural offices, please refer to the Appendix..
As with Hokkaidoh, the same prefectural system as adopted in Honshu and the southernmost parts of Japan (Reference 6) was not adopted in Karafuto (Reference 7). Although Karafuto's own local assembly and budget were somewhat planned to be established (Reference 8), these were never realized. However, in April 1937, the Karafuto Prefectural Council was set up to reflect a wide range of views on administrative policies. The prefectural council, which acted as an advisory body to the Prefect, was responsible for deliberating important issues and submitting proposals to the Prefect. The Prefect acted as the chairperson of the council, while the director for Karafuto's internal affairs was appointed to the vice-chairperson. Council members were selected from the intellectuals of the communities in Karafuto. In actuality, the council was made up of representatives from the local assemblies of cities, towns, and villages, the chambers of commerce and industry, and the other influential figures in Karafuto. The Karafuto Prefectural Council remained active even after Karafuto, legally speaking, became a part of Japan proper in 1943.
Karafuto had only an advisory body to the Prefect and never had a local assembly, because she was still in process of development.

2. The relationships between Karafuto and Hokkaidoh (The relationships between Karafuto-Choh [the Karafuto Prefecture] and Hokkaidoh-Choh [the Hokkaidoh Prefecture])
The industrial and economic aspects of Karafuto and Hokkaidoh had had many things in common. Their administrative aspects also had had many things in common since the times of the rule of the Matsumaes and the oversight of the Development Commission Office.
Beyond the system of Japan's domestic prefectures called "To-Choh-Fu-Ken" (Reference 9), Karafuto (Karafuto-Choh [the Karafuto Prefecture]) and Hokkaidoh (Hokkaidoh-Choh [the Hokkaidoh Prefecture]) were collectively called the Hokkai Region.
The following are some explanation and remarks on Japan's domestic prefectures and related matters:
(1) Japan's domestic prefectures had been called "Choh-Fu-Ken" until 1943 and had been called "To-Choh-Fu-Ken" from 1943 to 1947. They are currently called "To-Doh-Fu-Ken",
(2) Like Karafuto and Hokkaidoh, Japan's domestic prefectures that were close to one another in distance were collectively called the Region, and same effect as the law up until the previous day of the enactment and enforcement of The National Government Organization Law of 1948.
(3) In each collectively called region, the regional administrative council was established.
The regional administrative council established in each region by the Imperial Ordinance on Regional Administration (Reference 10) served merely as a liaison and coordinating body between prefectures. The regional administrative council in each region comprised prefectural governors, prefectural prefects, and local counselors. (The Hokkai Regional Administrative Council comprised the two Prefects and some counselors in Karafuto and Hokkaidoh). After the Imperial Ordinance on the Establishment of Regional General-Governments (Reference 11) was sanctioned and promulgated with the Privy Council's deliberation, it was soon enforced. As a result, Karafuto and Hokkaidoh came to be administered by the same regional general-government. (Reference 12) It was called the Hokkai Regional General-Government.
However, on November 6, 1945, the Hokkai Regional General-Government was abolished. With the promulgation and the enforcement of Imperial Ordinance of 1945, No.624, the Hokkaidoh Prefectural Prefect became the representative of both Karafuto and Hokkaidoh (Reference 13).
The Imperial ordinance above that stipulated powers of the Hokkaidoh Prefectural Prefect was abrogated on May 1, 1947. Due to the demobilization of the Japanese Imperial Army and Navy, the Demobilization Agency was established. After this agency was established, regimental district offices of the Imperial Army and local personnel offices of the Imperial Navy, which had been responsible for taking care of personal affairs of service men and military citizens, handled over this duty to the Local Assistance Bureau (Reference 14). This duty was again soon handled over to Japan's domestic prefectures (To-Doh-Fu-Ken). (Reference 15) However, since Karafuto has been illegally occupied by the Soviet Union and her successor, the Russian Federation, personal affairs of service men and military citizens from Karafuto were to be taken care of by the Hokkaidoh Prefectural Government. (Reference 16)


Q-3 (2): Please explain the outline of Karafuto's municipalities.

A-3 (2):

Karafuto's municipalities went through gradual transitions in accordance with their overall development. The history of Karafuto's municipalities can be divided into the following five periods. Please refer to the Appendix for more information on their actual transitions.

1. Period I: From the end of the Russo-Japanese War to 1915
During this period, Karafuto (Karafuto-Choh [the Karafuto Prefecture]) had had only sub-prefectural and local offices and had had no municipalities. However, de facto autonomies existed in Karafuto. They were run by councils made up of representatives (delegates and members) from community-based civil organizations (non-governmental organizations).

2. Period II: The period after the enforcement of the Imperial Ordinance of 1915 regarding the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto
In 1915, an Imperial Ordinance regarding the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto was sanctioned and promulgated (Reference 17). Hence, counties, towns, and villages were established in Karafuto. However, these counties, towns, and villages did not possess legal personality. This means that Karafuto was simply divided into physical districts that did not possess legal personality. (Regular municipalities like normal towns and villages possess legal personality.)

3. Period III: The period after the enforcement of an act in 1921 on municipalities in Karafuto
In 1921, a bill on municipalities in Karafuto was passed by the 44th Imperial Diet, and it was sanctioned and promulgated. The bill became an act in 1921, and the act was enforced in 1922. (Act No. 47 of 1921) (Reference 18) Upon the enforcement of the act, regular municipalities like normal towns and villages that possess legal personality were established in Karafuto. This was a brief act comprising nine articles with their details described in Imperial Ordinance No. 8 of 1922. (Reference 19) At that time, the mayors of the towns and the villages in Karafuto were appointed by the Karafuto Prefectural Prefect. Also, at the same time, an advisory council to the mayor of each town or village was set up. The members in the advisory council were appointed by the head of the sub-prefecture to which the town or the village belonged.

4. Period IV: The period after the enforcement of an act in 1929 on the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto
In 1929, passed by the 56th Imperial Diet, the act mentioned in Period III (Act No. 47 of 1921) was amended into another act on the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto (Act No. 2 of 1929). (Reference 20) The new amended act was a brief one comprising 7 articles with their details described in Imperial Ordinance No. 195 of 1929.
The following are some explanations and remarks on the acts and the ordinances mentioned in Period III and Period IV:
(1) The details of Act No. 47 of 1921 were stipulated in Imperial Ordinance No. 8 of 1922 called "Karafuto-Choh-Son-Sei", and
(2) The details of Act No. 2 of 1929 called "Karafuto-Choh-Son-Sei" were stipulated in Imperial Ordinance No. 195 of 1929.
Therefore, although both Imperial Ordinance No. 8 of 1922 and Act No. 2 of 1929 are called "Karafuto-Choh-Son-Sei" in Japanese, they are different things.
The towns and the villages in Karafuto needed to be administered in accordance with level of their development. Due to the enforcement of Act No. 2 of 1929 and Imperial Ordinance No. 195 of 1929, the towns and the villages in Karafuto were categorized into first-class, second-class, and non-categorized. A similar categorizing system had been adopted in Hokkaidoh. Additionally, the advisory council to the mayor of each town or village mentioned in Period III was abolished. Instead, town and village assemblies were set up with representatives elected by the local residents. The representatives were to serve a term of four years. To become an assembly member of each first-class town or village, one had to have been a resident in the each town or village for over two years. Similarly, to become an assembly member of each second-class town or village, one had to have been a resident in the each town or village for over a year. Unlike mayors of second-class towns or villages who were appointed by the Prefect of the Karafuto Prefecture, mayors of first-class towns or villages were elected by members of their local assemblies. At that time, 11, 24, and 15 of the towns and the villages in Karafuto were categorized into first-class, second-class, and non-categorized, respectively. Since the non-categorized towns and villages were kept being administered by previous laws and regulations, municipal assemblies were not set up in these towns and villages.
When the act on the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto (Act No. 2 of 1929) was enforced, there were no cities in Karafuto. However, a bill on the organization of cities in Karafuto was passed by the 70th Imperial Diet in 1937, and it was sanctioned and promulgated. The bill became Act No.1 of 1937. (Reference 21) Following the enforcement of the act, the Town of Toyohara, which had been the prefectural capital since 1908, was reorganized into the City of Toyohara on July 1, 1937. The City of Toyohara had two decision-making bodies: the city assembly and the city council. In order to become an assembly member, one had to have lived in Tohoyara for over two years. The city assembly had at least 30 and at most 40 seats. The city council comprised the mayor, the vice-mayor, and some influential assembly members.

5. Period V: The period after Karafuto became a part of Japan proper in 1943
Bills on partial revisions of previous acts ("the organization of cities" and "the organization of towns and villages" [Acts No. 68 and No. 69 of 1911]) were passed by the 81st Imperial Diet, and these were sanctioned and promulgated. The bills became Acts No. 80 and No. 81 of 1943. (Reference 22) Upon the enforcement of these acts, regulations administering municipalities in Karafuto were relegated to Acts No. 68 and No. 69 of 1911 and associated laws and ordinances. Consequently, the act on the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto (Act No. 2 of 1929) and the act on the organization of cities in Karafuto (Act No.1 of 1937) were abolished. Therefore, the categorization of first-class and second-class towns and villages was also abolished. However, the Minister of Home Affairs designated former second-class towns and villages as municipalities whose autonomous rights were restricted. For example, mayors of the designated towns and villages were appointed by the Prefect of the Karafuto Prefecture, and legislative decisions of these towns and villages could be made with written consent of assembly members. Incidentally, there were 17 former first-class and 24 former second-class towns and villages at the time.

6. Validity of laws and ordinances on municipalities in Karafuto
Karafuto has been occupied by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and its successor, the Russian Federation. Needless to say, this does not immediately affect Japanese laws and ordinances regarding Karafuto. However, the following things need to be considered. The Imperial Ordinance on the Establishment of Regional General-Governments was abolished on November 6, 1945. Prior to the enforcement of the Constitution of Japan, which replaced the Constitution of the Empire of Japan, regulations on administrative organizations had had to be set by Imperial ordinances. However, after the enforcement of the new constitution, these regulations came to have to be set by laws. Consequently, regulations on the Karafuto Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 33 of 1907) also came to have to be set by laws. Therefore, the regulations on the Karafuto Prefecture, in accordance with regulations of Act No. 72 of 1947, have been regarded to expire with the enforcement of the National Government Organization Act. (Reference 23)
However, since the municipalities in Karafuto had been administered not only by Imperial ordinances but also by laws, they are exempt from the regulations of Act No. 72 of 1947. Also, although Acts No. 68 and No. 69 of 1911 ("the organization of cities" and "the organization of towns and villages") were abolished on May 3, 1947 with the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Act, the municipalities in Karafuto legally speaking (strictly speaking) still exist under this new act.


Remarks
As stated above, the Hokkai Regional General-Government, the Karafuto prefecture, the Toyohara city, towns and villages were local autonomous bodies that administered or existed in Karafuto. An example of how to write an address in Karafuto under Japanese administration is put below. As seen in this address, the name of the county, which did not possess legal personality, is written even though the name of the sub-prefecture, which was established based on an Imperial ordinance, is not written. How to write an address in Hokkaidoh today is somewhat similar to this manner. (However, since the sub-prefectural system in Hokkaidoh was revised on April 1, 2010, sub-prefectures designated under the Local Autonomy Act are currently referred to as general sub-prefectural bureaus and sub-prefectural bureaus.)

① Within Toyohara City
1-1 Ohdohri-Minami, Toyohara-Shi, Karafuto

② Outside of Toyohara City
1-1 Minamihamamachi, Esutoru-Aza, Oh-Aza, Esutoru-Choh, Esutoru-Gun, Karafuto


(Reference 1)
Imperial Ordinance No.33 of 1907(Promulgated on March 15)
(Reference 2)
Organization of Karafuto Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 196 of 1943) Article 2:
Under direction and supervision of the Minister of Home Affairs (and the other Ministers) on general occasions (on specific occasions), the Prefect administers laws and ordinances and is responsible for managing Karafuto's development and administrative affairs.
Organization of Hokkaidoh Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 150 of 1913) Article 3:
Under direction and supervision of the Minister of Home Affairs (the Prime Minister, and the other Ministers) on general occasions (,on Cabinet occasions, and on specific occasions), the Prefect administers laws and ordinances and is responsible for managing Hokkaidoh's development and administrative affairs.

(Reference 3)
Organization of Karafuto Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 196 of 1943) Article 37:
Acting under laws and ordinances or on behalf of the Prefect, the head of the sub-prefecture may issue sub-prefectural ordinances to carry out his appointed duties.
Organization of Hokkaidoh Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 150 of 1913) Article 20:
Acting under laws and ordinances or on behalf of the Prefect, the head of the sub-prefecture may issue sub-prefectural ordinances to carry out his appointed duties.

(Reference 4)
Organization of Karafuto Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 196 of 1943) Article 8:
The Prefect may delegate some of his administrative duties to sub-prefectural heads or mayors of municipalities.
Organization of Hokkaidoh Prefecture (Imperial Ordinance No. 150 of 1913) Article 9:
The Prefect may delegate some of his administrative duties to sub-prefectural heads, heads of police stations, or mayors of cities and wards. (Immediately after the revision of Imperial Ordinance No. 413 of 1922)

(Reference 5)
The head of Hokkaidoh prefecture had been called Chohkan (the Prefect) prior to the abolishment of Hokkaido Prefecture organization with the enforcement of Article 2 of the Supplementary Provisions of the Local Autonomy Act (Ordinance No. 16 of 1947). The head of the Hokkaidoh prefecture is currently called Chizi (the Governor).

(Reference 6)
Act No. 64 of 1899 (Promulgated on March 16)

(Reference 7)
As a result of Act No. 27 of 1946, the "Fu-Ken" prefectural system came into force in Hokkaido. (The name of the Act was subsequently revised to the "Doh-Fu-Ken" prefectural system.)

(Reference 8)
Incidentally, its own budget called "Hokkaidoh Chihohi" and its own local assembly called "Hokkaidoh Kai" had been established in the Hokkaidoh Prefecture prior to the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Act.

(Reference 9)
Prior to the enforcement of the "Fu-Ken" prefectural system in Hokkaidoh, the region was administered as a Choh, which is commonly translated as "prefecture" in English. The "Choh" in the prefectural system of "To-Choh-Fu-Ken" refers to the prefectures of Karafuto and Hokkaidoh.

(Reference 10)
Imperial Ordinance No.548 of 1943 (Promulgated July 1)

(Reference 11)
Imperial Ordinance No.350 of 1945 (Promulgated June 10)

(Reference 12)
Regional general-governments were headed by 1) regional governor-generals, who were Imperial appointees under direction and supervision of the Prime Minister. 2) During the Great East Asian War, the regional governor-generals were responsible for administrating regional districts and 3) carried out duties stipulated by laws, ordinances or special commissions. This specifically meant governing the regional district, enacting ordinances within the limit of the authority vested in him (violations of which would result in penal servitude, imprisonment or detention of up to three months; or a fine up to 100 yen) and requesting the dispatch of military and naval forces in crisis situations.

(Reference 13)
Although the immediate post-war cabinet of Higashikuninomiya Prince Naruhiko discussed the possibility of maintaining the system of General-governments, it was abolished on November 6, 1945. Regions south of Honshu were divided into Regional Administrative Bureaus. With the enforcement of Imperial Ordinance No. 624 of 1945, the administrations of Karafuto and Hokkaido fell under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Hokkaido Prefecture. Following the Hokkaido Prefectural Ordinance No.18 of 1945, a Hokkaido Regional Administrative Bureau was set up within the Hokkaido Department of the Interior.
According to a GHQ directive, the ordinance establishing the authority of the Governor of Hokkaido Province was abrogated on May 1, 1947.

(Reference 14)
Due to the acceptance of the Potsdam Declaration and the subsequent demobilization of military and naval service men, Local Assistance Bureaus were set up under the Minister of First demobilization to replace the previously existing Regimental District Offices (Imperial Ordinance No. 676 of 1945 regarding the regulation governing the organization of the Ministry of First Demobilization). Local Personnel Bureaus were also set up under the Minister of Second Demobilization to replace the previously existing Local Navy Personnel Bureau (Imperial Ordinance No. 681 of 1945 regarding the regulations concerning the organization of the Ministry of Second Demobilization). Following the abolishment of the First and Second Demobilization Ministries in June 1946, military Local Assistance Bureaus and navy Local Personnel Bureaus were consolidated into Local Assistance Bureaus which were placed under the jurisdiction of the Prefectural governors (Imperial Ordinance No.318 of 1946 regarding the regulation concerning the Organization of the Local Assistance Bureau). The Bureaus were generally set up in Asahikawa, Obihiro (transferred to Kushiro later on), Hakodate and the prefectural capitals. The responsibility of overseeing the personal affairs of service men in Karafuto fell on the Local Assistance Bureau of Asahikawa, and that of the service men in Okinawa on the Local Assistance Bureau of Kumamoto. Later, the work of the Local Assistance Bureaus was transferred to the Prefectural Assistance Divisions (today's Relief Divisions etc.). The organization of Local Assistance Bureaus was abolished with the enforcement of the Local Autonomy Act (Ordinance No. 16 of 1947) Article 2.
 The following is the text of the ordinance regarding the Local Assistance Bureaus.
Imperial Ordinance No. 318 of 1946 regarding Regulations governing the Organization of the Local Assistance Bureau

We hereby give Our Sanction to the Regulations governing the Organization of the Local Assistance Bureau and cause the same to be promulgated.
Signed: HIROHITO, Seal of the Emperor
June 14, 1946

Countersigned:
Prime Minister YOSHIDA Shigeru
Minister of Home Affairs OMURA Seiichi
Imperial Ordinance No.318
Regulations governing the Organization of the Local Assistance Bureau

Article 1 The Local Assistance Bureau is under the supervision of the Prefectural Governor and the function is to dispose of personal affairs of service men and military civilians, and to the salary and other allowances, to their families.
The location, name and area concerned are settled by the Home Affairs Minister.

Article 2. The personnel of the Local Assistance Bureau throughout the country are as follows:
Chief of the Bureau
Local Administrative Official
Full time 960 Second class
Full time 1,402 Third class

Article 3. The Local Administrative Official (2nd class) is appointed to the chief and under superintendence of the Prefectural Governor, execute the duties of the Bureau, and give order to and look after the subordinate officials.

Article 4. The Prefectural Governor may, if necessary, establish the Branch Office of the Bureau.
Supplementary Provision.
The present Ordinance shall come into force as from the day of its promulgation.

(Reference 15)
Local Autonomy Act Special Provisions Article 10

(Reference 16)Order for Enforcement of the Local Autonomy Act Special Provisions Article 6

(Reference 17)
Imperial Ordinance No. 101 of 1915 regarding the organization of towns and villages in Karafuto (Promulgated June 28, Enforced August 1)

(Reference 18)
Act No. 47 of 1921 (Promulgated April 8)

(Reference 19)
Imperial Ordinance No. 8 of 1922 (Promulgated January 23, Enforced Apri1)
(Reference 20)
Act No.2 of 1929 (Promulgated March 27, Enforced July 1)

(Reference 21)
Act No.1 of 1937 (Promulgated March 23, Enforced June 25)

(Reference 22)
Following the enforcement of Acts No. 80 and No.81 of 1943, regulations governing Karafuto's municipalities were relegated to Acts No. 68 and No.69 of 1911 and associated laws and ordinances. This resulted in the abolishment of the organization of Karafuto's cities, towns and villages (Promulgated March 20).

(Reference 23)
The Administration System of Karafuto was partially amended after Soviet occupation (Imperial Ordinance No.560 of October 6, 1945) and lost validity following the enforcement of Article 1-3, of Act No.72 of 1947 (Act on Effect, etc. of Provisions of Orders Effective as of Time of Enforcement of the Constitution of Japan). The Governor-General's Office was, as mentioned previously, abolished on November 6, 1945. According to a GHQ directive, Imperial Ordinance No.624 of 1945 which stipulated that the Governor of Hokkaido Province would act as representative of both Karafuto and Hokkaido in coordinating with the interior government was repealed on May 1, 1947. The Hokkaido Administrative Office was also abolished.

The following is the text of Article 1-3, Act No.72 of 1947.
Act No.72 of 1947 (Act on Effect, etc. of Provisions of Orders Effective as of Time of Enforcement of the Constitution of Japan)
Article 1-3 Acts and Ordinances regarding regulations concerning government offices shall have the same effect as the law up until the previous day of the enactment and enforcement of The National Government Organization Law of 1948.


Q&A 2:  A Geographic & Historical Overview of Karafuto and Her Current Status

Q:  Where is Karafuto that had been pioneeringly developed by Japanese prior to Russian territorial expansion in the 19th century? Also, could you tell us her brief history and current status?

A:  Karafuto is a long-stretched island to the north of Hokkaidoh. (Her Russian name is Sakhalin.) She is almost as large as Hokkaidoh and is often called Karafuto-Toh (Karafuto Island). The southernmost tip of the island is approximately 43km away from Cape Sohya. The Matsumaes, one of Japan's warlords, started to reclaim Karafuto in the late 17th century by establishing fishing bases there(1). From the dawn of human history to the early 19th century, Karafuto had never been under influence of the Russian Empire(2). However, in the early 19th century, the Russian territorial expansion finally reached her. Although the Tokugawa Shogunate and its successor, the Meiji Government of Japan attempted to prevent the Russian expansion to the south, Japan regretfully gave Karafuto up to Russia through the Karafuto-Chishima Exchange Treaty (The Treaty of Saint Petersburg) in 1875(3). Japan, 30 years later, successfully completed building a modern army and a navy, and Russia at that time was still hoping to obtain more land to the south of Manchuria. Therefore tension between the two nations kept increasing. Consequently, the Russo-Japanese War broke out. Although Japan faced hard battles, she defeated Russia on both land and sea and regained Karafuto during the war. In August 1905, through mediation of the US President Theodore Roosevelt, peace negotiations between the two nations started in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. (President Roosevelt had recommended Japan to occupy Karafuto before the start of the negotiations.) The negotiations were so tough that Japan decided to renounce North Karafuto(4). As a result, a peace treaty (the Treaty of Portsmouth) was signed between the two nations. Thus only South Karafuto(5) was returned to Japan.
For 40 years, that is, from the return of South Karafuto to Japan in 1905 to the end of the Second World War in 1945, South Karafuto under Japanese rule had been dramatically turned into a prosperous land. A local government called Karafuto-Choh (the Karafuto Prefecture) was established in South Karafuto, and approximately 410 thousand Japanese subjects lived there at the peaking period. Since Japan's local governments at the present time are called To-Doh-Fu-Ken (domestic prefectures), and their equivalents at that time were called Choh-Fu-Ken (domestic prefectures), South Karafuto had been regarded as a part of Japan proper in various occasions. Until the very final stage of the Second World War, South Karafuto had not experienced American air raids and had been relatively safe. However, on August 9, 1945, the Soviet Union(6) broke the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact and attacked South Karafuto. South Karafuto turned into hell. The Soviet Union ignored the neutrality pact formally signed between the two nations, and her forces kept invading South Karafuto even after Japan's surrender on August 15, 1945. Indeed, peace delegates sent to the Soviet forces by Japan were murdered by Soviet soldiers. On August 20, the town of Maoka on the west coast of Karafuto was bombarded from the sea. On August 22, after Japanese Colonel Suzuki and Soviet General Alimov met in Shiritoru, South Karafuto and agreed to cease fire, the city of Toyohara, the prefectural capital was bombed by Soviet airplanes. On this day, August 22, early in the morning, additional sad incidents happened off the coast of Rumoi, Hokkaido. Three Japanese emergency evacuation ships from South Karafuto were sunk and heavily damaged by Soviet submarines, and around 1,700 people including many women and children were lost at sea. These Soviet continuous acts of aggression killed fairly many civilians. On a later day in September 1945, the Soviet Union unilaterally declared that South Karafuto had become a part of the Union.
As of 2013, the Russian Federation(7), the successor of the Soviet Union administers the entire Karafuto Island, the Northern Four Islands(8), and the northern portion of the Chishima Islands(9) and has established a local government called Sakhalin State in these areas. However, the Japanese government has been demanding that the Russian government should return the Northern Four Islands (land inherent to Japan) to Japan. Additionally, the Japanese government has been denying Russian sovereignty over South Karafuto and the northern portion of the Chishima Islands, because the sovereignty over these areas has not been determined by legal measures. In conclusion, North Karafuto legally belongs to the Russian Federation, but South Karafuto, legally speaking, does not belong to any country (10) .

[Remarks]
(1) The relationship between the Karafuto Ainu and the Chinese dynasties after Tang was such that the Karafuto Ainu were from time to time somewhat tributary to the Chinese dynasties. However, the Chinese dynasties by and large did not make efforts to put effective control over the Karafuto Ainu. Therefore, in each Ainu village, their ordinary life did not change.
(2), (6), (7) The Russian Empire is the predecessor of the Soviet Union, and the Russian Federation is the successor of the Soviet Union.
(3) In exchange for Japan's renouncing Karafuto, the Russian Empire ceded the northern portion of the Chishima Islands to Japan. However, Japanese reluctantly signed the treaty.
(4) "North Karafuto" refers to "the northern portion of Karafuto Island that separates from the southern portion at the latitude of 50 degrees north".
(5) "South Karafuto" refers to "the southern portion of Karafuto Island that separates from the northern portion at the latitude of 50 degrees north".
(8) "The Northern Four Islands" refer to "Habomai Islands, Shikotan Island, Kunashiri Island, and Etorofu Island".
(9) "The northern portion of the Chishima Islands" refers to "the eighteen islands from Urup Island to Shumushu Island".
(10) Although Japan has renounced South Karafuto through the San Francisco Peace Treaty, the treaty did not determine to which country South Karafuto would belong.


Q&A 1:  A typical global map

Q:  On a typical global map issued in Japan, Karafuto (the southern part of Sakhalin Island) is often left blank, while Japan and Russia are painted in different colors. Why?

A:  In August 1945, at the very final stage of World War II, breaking the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact, the USSR (The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) suddenly invaded Karafuto (the southern part of Sakhalin Island) and the Chishima Islands (the Kurile Islands) and declared that these areas would be annexed to the Union.
In the Treaty of Peace with Japan that formally ended WWII (signed in Sept. 1951, and commonly known as the San Francisco Peace Treaty), Article 2c states that "Japan renounces all rights, titles and claims on the Kurile Islands and on the southern part of Sakhalin Island over which sovereignty was acquired by Japan as a consequence of the Treaty of Portsmouth of September 5, 1905." However, the San Francisco Peace Treaty does not state that, to which country, these areas will finally belong. Russia, the successor of the USSR, continues to administer these territories, but even today it has never been specified in an international law to which country they belong.
Representing his nation at the Peace Conference in San Francisco which resulted in the signing of the Treaty, Japan's Prime Minister Shigeru Yoshida made the following statements: "With respect to the Kurile Islands and the southern part of Sakhalin Island, I cannot yield to the claim of the Soviet Delegate that Japan had grabbed them by aggression. At the time of the opening of Japan, her ownership of two islands of Etorofu and Kunashiri, southern portions of the Kurile Islands, was not questioned at all by the Empire of Russia. (Japan and Russia in the 19th century agreed that northern portions of the Kurile Islands which are from Urup Island to Shumushu Island would belong to Russia and Sakhalin Island would be open to both Japanese and Russian settlers.) On May 7, 1875 the Japanese and Russian Governments effected through peaceful negotiations an arrangement under which the entire Sakhalin island was turned into a Russian territory, and the northern portions of the Kurile Islands which are to the north of Urup Island were in exchange turned into Japanese territories. But, in actuality, under the name of "exchange" Japan simply ceded the entire Sakhalin Island to Russia in order to settle the territorial dispute. The Treaty of Portsmouth of September 5, 1905, which was signed through the intermediary of President Theodore Roosevelt of the United States, concluded that the southern part of Sakhalin Island would be returned to Japan. Both the Kurile Islands and the southern part of Sakhalin Island were taken unilaterally by the Soviet Union on September 20, 1945, shortly after Japan's surrender."
In an aide memoire to Japan issued in Sept., 1956, the U.S. State Department declared: "The San Francisco Peace Treaty, which conferred no rights upon the Soviet Union because it refused to sign it, did not determine the sovereignty of the territories renounced by Japan as it had been stated by the Delegate of the United States at San Francisco. Also, international solvents other than this treaty should determine to which country the territories should belong."
These are some reasons why, on a typical global map issued in Japan, Karafuto (the southern part of Sakhalin Island) is left blank, while Japan and Russia are painted in different colors with two national boundaries drawn across the Soya Strait and the latitude of 50 degrees north, respectively. This means that Karafuto (the southern part of Sakhalin Island) is not recognized as a part of Russia.

Remarks: With regard to these territorial issues, we consider Karafuto and the Chishima Islands (the Kurile Islands) as inseparable and therefore have included both in the statements above.

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